How much do resin-based dental materials release? A meta-analytical approach.
ABSTRACT Resin-based dental materials are not inert in the oral environment, and may release components, initially due to incomplete polymerization, and later due to degradation. Since there are concerns regarding potential toxicity, more precise knowledge of the actual quantity of released eluates is necessary. However, due to a great variety in analytical methodology employed in different studies and in the presentation of the results, it is still unclear to which quantities of components a patient may be exposed. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to review the literature on the short- and long-term release of components from resin-based dental materials, and to determine how much (order of magnitude) of those components may leach out in the oral cavity.
Out of an initial set of 71 studies, 22 were included. In spite of the large statistical incertitude due to the great variety in methodology and lack of complete information (detection limits were seldom mentioned), a meta-analytical mean for the evaluated eluates was calculated. To relate the amount of potentially released material components with the size of restorations, the mean size of standard composite restorations was estimated using a 3D graphical program.
While the release of monomers was analyzed in many studies, that of additives, such as initiators, inhibitors and stabilizers, was seldom investigated. Significantly more components were found to be released in organic than in water-based media. Resin-based dental materials might account for the total burden of orally ingested bisphenol A, but they may release even higher amounts of monomers, such as HEMA, TEGDMA, BisGMA and UDMA. Compared to these monomers, similar or even higher amounts of additives may elute, even though composites generally only contain very small amounts of additives. A positive correlation was found between the total quantity of released eluates and the volume of extraction solution.
There is a clear need for more accurate and standardized analytical research to determine the long-term release from resin-based materials. Several guidelines for standardization are proposed.
- SourceAvailable from: Fernanda B. Leal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the performance of phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phosphine oxide (BAPO) as an alternative photoinitiator in the polymerization kinetics (PK), flexural strength (σ) and elastic modulus (E) of a model dental resin.Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 06/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives This study evaluated the performance of phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phosphine oxide (BAPO) as an alternative photoinitiator in the polymerization kinetics (PK), flexural strength (σ) and elastic modulus (E) of a model dental resin. Methods A monomer mixture based on Bis-GMA and TEGDMA was used as model dental resin. Initially a screening was performed to evaluate BAPO concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, and 4 mol%). Photoinitiator systems were formed with the combination of camphorquinone (CQ), ethyl-dimethylamino benzoate (EDAB), diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHFP), and BAPO. Groups with unitary photoinitiator systems (BAPO and CQ), binary (BAPO + EDAB, BAPO + DPIHFP and CQ + EDAB), ternary (BAPO + CQ + EDAB, BAPO + CQ + DPIHFP, BAPO + EDAB + DPIHFP and CQ + EDAB + DPIHFP) and quaternary (BAPO + CQ + EDAB + DPIHFP) were formulated for evaluation. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the PK and test mini-bending to evaluate σ and E. Results When only CQ was used, a slow polymerization reaction was observed and a lower monomer conversion. When only BAPO was used as photoinitiator an increase in the polymerization rate was observed and conversion was higher than CQ + EDAB. The ternary system (BAPO + EDAB + DPIHFP) showed the highest polymerization and conversion rate, in short photo-activation time. Significance BAPO it is a potential photoinitiator for the photopolymerization of dental materials.Dental Materials. 01/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA) is a frequently used monomer in dental restorative resins. However, BisGMA could leach from dental restorative resins after polymerization leading to inflammation in the peripheral environment. Wogonin, a natural flavone derivative, has several benefits, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Pretreatment of macrophage RAW264.7 cells with wogonin inhibited cytotoxicity which is induced by BisGMA in a concentration-dependent manner. BisGMA induced apoptotic responses, such as redistribution of phosphatidylserine from the internal to the external membrane and DNA fragmentation, were decreased by wogonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, BisGMA-induced genotoxicity, which detected by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus and single-cell gel electrophoresis assays, were inhibited by wogonin in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, wogonin suppressed BisGMA–induced activation of intrinsic caspase pathways, such as caspases-3 and −8. Parallel trends were observed in inhibition of caspase-3 and −8 activities, apoptosis, and genotoxicity. These results indicate wogonin suppressed the BisGMA-induced apoptosis and genotoxicity mainly via intrinsic caspase pathway in macrophages. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.Environmental Toxicology 07/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor