Conserved interneuron-specific ErbB4 expression in frontal cortex of rodents, monkeys, and humans: implications for schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 are genetically associated with schizophrenia, and detailed knowledge of the cellular and subcellular localization of ErbB4 is important for understanding how neuregulin-1 regulates neuronal network activity and behavior. Expression of ErbB4 is restricted to interneurons in the rodent hippocampus and cortex. However, controversy remains about the cellular expression pattern in primate brain and its subcellular distribution in postsynaptic somatodendritic locations versus presynaptic terminals.
ErbB4 expression was analyzed in pyramidal cells and interneurons in the frontal cortex of five species: C57BL6 mice (n = 3), ErbB4⁻/⁻ mice (n = 2), Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3), two macaque species (n = 3 + 2), and humans (normal control subjects, n = 2). We investigated 1) messenger RNA in mice, macaques, and humans; 2) protein expression in all species using highly specific monoclonal antibodies; and 3) specificity tests of several ErbB4 antibodies on brain samples (mouse, macaque, human).
ErbB4 RNA is restricted to interneurons in the frontal cortex of mice. ErbB4 protein is undetectable in pyramidal cells of rodents, macaques, and human frontal cortex, whereas most interneurons positive for parvalbumin, calretinin, or cholecystokinin, but only a minority of calbindin-positive cells, co-express ErbB4 in macaques. Importantly, no presynaptic ErbB4 expression was detected in any species.
The interneuron-selective somatodendritic expression of ErbB4 is consistent with a primary role of neuregulin-ErbB4 signaling in the postsynaptic modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic function in rodents and primates. Our data validate the use of rodents to analyze effects of abnormal ErbB4 function as a means to model endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders.
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ABSTRACT: To establish the time required for fish to acclimate to experimental conditions, comprising holding within a spatially restrictive environment, rainbow trout were transferred from rearing tanks (1500 1) to smaller volume holding tanks (50 1). The fish were maintained singly, in pairs, in groups of five fish, and in groups of 10 fish, and selected indices of physiological stress were monitored at intervals following the onset of confinement. In all cases transfer and confinement provoked a stress response in the fish, indicated by significantly elevated plasma cortisol levels, and significantly reduced numbers of circulating lymphocytes. Recovery of these parameters to levels similar to unstressed control fish, was most rapid among the fish confined singly, requiring 2 to 4 weeks, although weight gain, indicative of feeding, was apparent within 1 to 2 weeks. Acclimation of the fish confined as pairs was severely confounded by the development of hierarchical relationships between the fish. This resulted in some individuals displaying rapid acclimation and growth, in contrast to other fish within the groups which failed to acclimate, exhibited signs of chronic stress, and ultimately succumbed to bacterial infections. Similar, though less severe, evidence of social stress was observed among the fish confined as groups of five. A decline in the coefficient of variance for weight within the fish confined as groups of 10 suggested an absence of growth inhibition due to social interaction among these fish. The implications of these results for experimental design are discussed.Journal of Fish Biology 01/2006; 41(3):435 - 447. · 1.83 Impact Factor
- The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1987; 49(1):1-12.
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ABSTRACT: Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and the ecological performance of late larval and juvenile flatfish in nursery grounds are examined from ecophysiological viewpoints. The first events in the nursery are metamorphosis and settlement. Development of organs, osmoregulation and behavioural changes during metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis are regulated by environmental factors. Various hormones play critical roles in this regulation. Effects of environmental conditions on individual growth in the nursery grounds are described on the basis of Fry's five environmental factors: limiting, controlling, masking, directive and lethal factors. The main limiting factors are food and dissolved oxygen; controlling factors are temperature and body size; masking factors are salinity and pollutants; lethal factors are extreme environments; and directive factors are food, predators and dissolved oxygen. In addition to temperature, it has been indicated that dissolved oxygen seems to be relatively important for flatfish of the eastern US and northern European countries, while food abundance appears to be more critical for Japanese flounder. The feasibility is discussed of ecophysiological modelling to predict individual growth and subpopulation production based on the assessment of the role of environmental variability using the above classification, which organises and integrates environmental effects.Journal of Sea Research - J SEA RES. 01/2001; 45(3):205-218.