On diphtheria toxin fragment A release into the cytosol--cytochalasin D effect and involvement of actin filaments and eukaryotic elongation factor 2.
ABSTRACT Diphtheria toxin has been well characterized in terms of its receptor binding and receptor mediated endocytosis. However, the precise mechanism of the cytosolic release of diphtheria toxin fragment A from early endosomes is still unclear. Various reports differ regarding the requirement for cytosolic factors in this process. Here, we present data indicating that the distribution of actin filaments due to cytochalasin D action enhances the retention of diphtheria toxin in early endosomes. Treating cells with cytochalasin D reduces the cytosolic fragment A activity and leads to changes in the intracellular distribution and size of early endosomes with toxin cargo. F-actin and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 can promote fragment A release from toxin-loaded early endosomes in an in vitro translocation system. Moreover, these proteins bind to toxin-loaded early endosomes in vitro and promote each other's binding. They are thus thought to be involved in the cytosolic release of fragment A. Finally, ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is shown to inhibit fragment A release and, via a feed-back mechanism, to account for the minute amounts of fragment A normally found in the cytosol.
- SourceAvailable from: John R MurphyInsight and Control of Infectious Disease in Global Scenario, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0319-6
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ABSTRACT: Diphtheria toxin (DT) and its N-terminal fragment A (FA) catalyse the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) into a covalent linkage with eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). DT-induced cytotoxicity is versatile, and it includes DNA cleavage and the depolymerisation of actin filaments. The inhibition of the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPrT) activity of FA did not affect the deoxyribonuclease activity of FA or its interaction with actin. The toxin entry rate into cells (HUVEC) was determined by measuring the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. DT uptake was nearly 80% after 30 min. The efficiency was determined as K(m) = 2.2 nM; V(max) = 0.25 pmol.min(-1). The nuclease activity was tested with hyperchromicity experiments, and it was concluded that G-actin has an inhibitory effect on DT nuclease activity. In the presence of DT and mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), F-actin depolymerisation was determined with gel filtration, WB and fluorescence techniques. In the presence of DT and CRM197, 60-65% F-actin depolymerisation was observed. An in vitro FA-actin interaction and F-actin depolymerisation were reported in our previous paper. The present study thus confirms the depolymerisation of actin cytoskeleton in vivo.Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 12/2011; 17(1):49-61. · 1.95 Impact Factor