Effects of the thyroid hormone derivatives 3-iodothyronamine and thyronamine on rat liver oxidative capacity.

Dipartimento delle Scienze Biologiche, Sezione di Fisiologia, Università di Napoli, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 06/2011; 341(1-2):55-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Thyronamines T(0)AM and T(1)AM are naturally occurring decarboxylated thyroid hormone derivatives. Their in vivo administration induces effects opposite to those induced by thyroid hormone, including lowering of body temperature. Since the mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus is known to be a potential target of thyroid hormone and its derivatives, we investigated the in vitro effects of T(0)AM and T(1)AM on the rates of O(2) consumption and H(2)O(2) release by rat liver mitochondria. Hypothyroid animals were used because of the low levels of endogenous thyronamines. We found that both compounds are able to reduce mitochondrial O(2) consumption and increase H(2)O(2) release. The observed changes could be explained by a partial block, operated by thyronamines, at a site located near the site of action of antimycin A. This hypothesis was confirmed by the observation that thyronamines reduced the activity of Complex III where the site of antimycin action is located. Because thyronamines exerted their effects at concentrations comparable to those found in hepatic tissue, it is conceivable that they can affect in vivo mitochondrial O(2) consumption and H(2)O(2) production acting as modulators of thyroid hormone action.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous relative of thyroid hormone with profound metabolic effects. In different experimental models, T1AM increased blood glucose, and it is not clear whether this effect is entirely accounted by changes in insulin and/or glucagone secretion. Thus, in the present work, we investigated the uptake of T1AM by hepatocytes, which was compared with the uptake of thyroid hormones, and the effects of T1AM on hepatic glucose and ketone body production. Two different experimental models were used: HepG2 cells and perfused rat liver. Thyronines and thyronamines (T0AMs) were significantly taken up by hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells exposed to 1 μM T1AM, at the steady state, the cellular concentration of T1AM exceeded the medium concentration by six- to eightfold. Similar accumulation occurred with 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Liver experiments confirmed significant T1AM uptake. T1AM was partly catabolized and the major catabolites were 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1) (in HepG2 cells) and T0AM (in liver). In both preparations, infusion with 1 μM T1AM produced a significant increase in glucose production, if adequate gluconeogenetic substrates were provided. This effect was dampened at higher concentration (10 μM) or in the presence of the amine oxidase inhibitor iproniazid, while TA1 was ineffective, suggesting that T1AM may have a direct gluconeogenetic effect. Ketone body release was significantly increased in liver, while variable results were obtained in HepG2 cells incubated with gluconeogenetic substrates. These findings are consistent with the stimulation of fatty acid catabolism, and a shift of pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. Notably, these effects are independent from hormonal changes and might have physiological and pathophysiological importance.
    Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 221(1):101-10. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxidizing agents amply implicated in tissue damage. ROS production is inevitably linked to ATP synthesis in most cells, and the rate of production is related to the rate of cell respiration. Multiple antioxidant mechanisms limit ROS dispersion and interaction with cell components, but, when the balance between ROS production and scavenging is lost, oxidative damage develops. Many traits of aging are related to oxidative damage by ROS, including neurodegenerative diseases. Thyroid hormones (THs) are a major factor controlling metabolic and respiratory rates in virtually all cell types in mammals. The general metabolic effect of THs is a relative acceleration of the basal metabolism that includes an increase of the rate of both catabolic and anabolic reactions. THs are related to oxidative stress not only by their stimulation of metabolism but also by their effects on antioxidant mechanisms. Thyroid dysfunction increases with age, so changes in THs levels in the elderly could be a factor affecting the development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship is not always clear. In this review, we analyze the participation of thyroid hormones on ROS production and oxidative stress, and the way the changes in thyroid status in aging are involved in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2013; 2013:218145.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study used an optical technique to measure the effects of treating low (10 mg/kg) and high (25 mg/kg) doses of 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) on the metabolism in the kidney and heart of mice. The ratio of two intrinsic fluorophores in tissue, (NADH/FAD), called the NADH redox ratio (NADH RR), is a marker of the metabolic state of the tissue. A cryofluorescence imaging instrument was used to provide a quantitative assessment of NADH RR in both kidneys and hearts in mice treated with 3-iodothyronamine. We compared those results to corresponding tissues in control mice. In the kidneys of mice treated with a high dose T1AM, the mean values of the maximum projection of NADH RR were 2.6 ± 0.6 compared to 3.20 ± 0.03 in control mice, indicating a 19% ( ± 0.4) significant increase in oxidative stress (OS) in the high dose-treated kidneys (P = 0.047). However, kidneys treated with a low dose of T1AM showed no difference in NADH RR compared to the kidneys of control mice. Furthermore, low versus high dose treatment of T1AM showed different responses in the heart than in the kidneys. The mean value of the maximum projection of NADH RR in the heart changed from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.6 for the low dose and the high dose T1AM-treated mice, respectively, as compared to 2.8 ± 0.7 in control mice. These values correspond to a 9% (±0.5) (P = 0.045) and 14% (±0.5) (P = 0.008) significant increase in NADH RR in the T1AM-treated hearts, indicating that the high dose T1AM-treated tissues have reduced OS compared to the low dose-treated tissues or the control tissues. These results suggest that while T1AM at a high dose increases oxidative response in kidneys, it has a protective effect in the heart and may exert its effect through alternative pathways at different doses and at tissue specific levels.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 12/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor


Available from
May 21, 2014