Effects of the thyroid hormone derivatives 3-iodothyronamine and thyronamine on rat liver oxidative capacity.

Dipartimento delle Scienze Biologiche, Sezione di Fisiologia, Università di Napoli, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.24). 06/2011; 341(1-2):55-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Thyronamines T(0)AM and T(1)AM are naturally occurring decarboxylated thyroid hormone derivatives. Their in vivo administration induces effects opposite to those induced by thyroid hormone, including lowering of body temperature. Since the mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus is known to be a potential target of thyroid hormone and its derivatives, we investigated the in vitro effects of T(0)AM and T(1)AM on the rates of O(2) consumption and H(2)O(2) release by rat liver mitochondria. Hypothyroid animals were used because of the low levels of endogenous thyronamines. We found that both compounds are able to reduce mitochondrial O(2) consumption and increase H(2)O(2) release. The observed changes could be explained by a partial block, operated by thyronamines, at a site located near the site of action of antimycin A. This hypothesis was confirmed by the observation that thyronamines reduced the activity of Complex III where the site of antimycin action is located. Because thyronamines exerted their effects at concentrations comparable to those found in hepatic tissue, it is conceivable that they can affect in vivo mitochondrial O(2) consumption and H(2)O(2) production acting as modulators of thyroid hormone action.

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    Journal of Endocrinology 03/2014; 221(1):101-10. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous amine, that has been detected in many rodent tissues, and in human blood. It has been hypothesized to derive from thyroid hormone metabolism, but this hypothesis still requires validation. T1AM is not a ligand for nuclear thyroid hormone receptors, but stimulates with nanomolar affinity trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a G protein-coupled membrane receptor. With a lower affinity it interacts with alpha2A adrenergic receptors. Additional targets are represented by apolipoprotein B100, mitochondrial ATP synthase, and membrane monoamine transporters, but the functional relevance of these interactions is still uncertain. Among the effects reported after administration of exogenous T1AM to experimental animals, metabolic and neurological responses deserve special attention, because they were obtained at low dosages, which increased endogenous tissue concentration by about one order of magnitude. Systemic T1AM administration favored fatty acid over glucose catabolism, increased ketogenesis and increased blood glucose. Similar responses were elicited by intracerebral infusion, which inhibited insulin secretion and stimulated glucagon secretion. However, T1AM administration increased ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis also in hepatic cell lines and in perfused liver preparations, providing evidence for a peripheral action, as well. In the central nervous system, T1AM behaved as a neuromodulator, affecting adrenergic and/or histaminergic neurons. Intracerebral T1AM administration favored learning and memory, modulated sleep and feeding, and decreased the pain threshold. In conclusion T1AM should be considered as a component of thyroid hormone signaling and might play a significant physiological and/or pathophysiological role. T1AM analogs have already been synthetized and their therapeutical potential is currently under investigation. 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) is a biogenic amine whose structure is closely related to that of thyroid hormone (3,5,3′-triiodothyronine, or T3). The differences with T3 are the absence of the carboxylate group and the substitution of iodine with hydrogen in 5 and 3′ positions (Figure 1). In this paper we will review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that T1AM is a chemical messenger, namely that it is an endogenous substance able to interact with specific receptors producing significant functional effects. Special emphasis will be placed on neurological and metabolic effects, which are likely to have physiological and pathophysiological importance.
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