Low lifetime recreational activity is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (Impact Factor: 2.98). 06/2011; 54(2):427-32, 432.e1-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.02.052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The relationship between lifetime physical activity and the risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is not known.
We studied 1381 patients referred for elective coronary angiography in a point prevalence analysis. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.9 at the time or a history of revascularization of the lower extremities regardless of ABI measure. We used a validated physical activity questionnaire to retrospectively measure each patient's lifetime recreational activity (LRA). Multivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of LRA to ABI and the presence of PAD.
PAD was present in 19% (n = 258) of all subjects. Subjects reporting no regular LRA had greater diastolic blood pressure and were more likely to be female. They had lower average ABI, and a higher proportion had PAD (25.6%). In a regression model, including traditional risk factors and LRA, multivariate analysis showed that age (P < .001), female gender (P < .001), systolic blood pressure (P = .014), fasting glucose (P < .001), serum triglycerides (P = .02), and cumulative pack years (P < .001) were independent negative predictors of ABI, and LRA was a positive predictor of ABI (P < .001). History of sedentary lifestyle independently increased the odds ratio for PAD (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.10) when assessed by logistic regression. Intriguingly, there is a correlation between physical activity and gender, such that women with low LRA are at greatest risk.
Recalled LRA is positively correlated to ABI and associated with PAD. Whereas the mechanism for this effect is not clear, LRA may be a useful clinical screening tool for PAD risk, and strategies to increase adult recreational activity may reduce the burden of PAD later in life.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inadequate blood supply to tissues caused by obstruction of arterioles and/or capillaries results in ischemic injuries - these injuries can range from mild (eg, leg ischemia) to severe conditions (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke). Surgical and/or endovascular procedures provide cutting-edge treatment for patients with vascular disorders; however, a high percentage of patients are currently not treatable, owing to high operative risk or unfavorable vascular involvement. Therapeutic angiogenesis has recently emerged as a promising new therapy, promoting the formation of new blood vessels by the introduction of bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells. These cells participate in the development of new blood vessels, the enlargement of existing blood vessels, and sprouting new capillaries from existing blood vessels, providing evidence of the therapeutic utility of these cells in ischemic tissues. In this review, the authors describe peripheral arterial disease, an ischemic condition affecting the lower extremities, summarizing different aspects of vascular regeneration and discussing which and how stem cells restore the blood flow. The authors also present an overview of encouraging results from early-phase clinical trials using stem cells to treat peripheral arterial disease. The authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will allow the results of these investigations to develop best clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many clinical trials have been not registered on databases such as or EudraCT. Therefore, more rigorous clinical trials are required to confirm the first hopeful results and to address the challenging issues.
    Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications 09/2012; 5:5-14. DOI:10.2147/SCCAA.S28121
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly morbid condition affecting more than 8 million Americans. Frequently, PAD patients are unrecognized and therefore do not receive appropriate therapies. Therefore, new methods to identify PAD have been pursued, but have thus far had only modest success. Here we describe a new approach combining genomic and metabolic information to enhance the diagnosis of PAD. We measured the genotype of the chromosome 9p21 cardiovascular-risk polymorphism rs10757269 as well as the biomarkers C-reactive protein, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and plasma glucose in a study population of 393 patients undergoing coronary angiography. The rs10757269 allele was associated with PAD status (ankle-brachial index < 0.9) independent of biomarkers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio=1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.85). Importantly, compared to a previously validated risk factor-based PAD prediction model, the addition of biomarkers and rs10757269 significantly and incrementally improved PAD risk prediction as assessed by the net reclassification index (NRI=33.5%; p=0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.016; p=0.017). In conclusion, a model including a panel of biomarkers, which includes both genomic information (which is reflective of heritable risk) and metabolic information (which integrates environmental exposures), predicts the presence or absence of PAD better than established risk models, suggesting clinical utility for the diagnosis of PAD.
    Vascular Medicine 12/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1177/1358863X13514791 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lower extremity (LE) peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is associated with a reduced quality of life and increased mortality from atherosclerotic cardio-/cerebro-vascular occlusion, is a significant public health problem, especial for an aging society such as that of Taiwan. Specific datasets of the 2000--2011 nationwide inpatient databases were analyzed. Two inclusion criteria, including one of the major diagnosis codes of PAD and one of three categorical invasive treatments of LE PAD, were used consecutively to select cases diagnosed as LE PAD and receiving invasive treatment. The epidemiology of invasively-treated PAD in Taiwan was estimated, and the influences of potential confounders on these invasively-treated methods were evaluated. In general, the invasively-treated incidence of PAD in Taiwan doubled, from 3.73/10,000 (in 2000) to 7.48/10,000 (in 2011). On average, the total direct medical cost of one hospitalized and invasively-treated PAD case ranged from $US 4,600 to $US 5,900. The annual cases of bypass surgery for the PAD cases averaged 1,000 and the cases for limb amputation ranged from 4,100 to 5,100 annually. However, the number of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures remarkably increased by 15 times, from 600/year to 9,100/year, from 2000 to 2011. 51.3% of all the enrolled cases were treated with limb amputations, and female, young and middle-aged people (30--65 years of age), DM patients and those on a low income had a tendency to undergo amputation due to PAD. 37.6% of all the enrolled cases were treated with PTAs related to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia and catastrophic Illness. 2-year PTA failure rates of 22.13%, 11.91% and 10.61% were noted among the first (2000--2001), second (2004--2005) and the third (2008--2009) cohort groups, respectively. In Taiwan, a gender difference and age and period effects on the invasively-treated incidence of LE PAD were observed. Female, young and middle-aged people (30--50 and 50--65 years of age), DM patients and those on a low income had a tendency to undergo amputation. The number of PTA procedures remarkably increased, but the 2-year failure rate of PTAs reduced from 2000 to 2011.
    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1107. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1107 · 2.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014