Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out.
"Over the last few decades, increasing environmental concerns have prompted a surge in research by the composite science community to develop natural-fiber biocomposites. These materials can be completely degraded in soil, or, by composting, do not emit volatile organic compounds, and are softer on the environment than petrochemical resource-based products (Mohanty et al. 2000; Lithner et al. 2011). Agricultural byproducts have several advantages over classical natural fibers: they do not need dedicated agricultural fields, they are already readily available, and they offer valuable environmental compatibility over standard-feedstock fibers (Reddy and Yang 2005). "
"This polymer persists for several hundred years in the environment and undergoes to extremely slow depolymerization in marine waters (Andrady, 2003; Innocenti, 2003), thus leading to the formation of micro and nano-debris (Bandyopadhyay and Basak, 2007; Hofer, 2008). Therefore, PS might pose a serious hazard to marine organisms due to the properties of the styrene monomer known as carcinogenic and endocrine disruptor (Lithner et al., 2011). These findings identified PS debris as potential multiple stressor in marine habitats, especially when available for ingestion by marine wildlife. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.021 · 2.76 Impact Factor
"These monomers can leach out of the polymeric material and, as some of these are considered toxic (including carcinogenic and mutagenic effects), they can pose a threat to the environment. This effect can be estimated based on the monomer hazard ranking as described by Lithner et al. (2011). Most hazardous polymers belong to the families of polyurethanes, polyvinyl chloride and styrene, amongst others (Lither, 2011). "
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