Prediction of Onset and Course of High Hospital Utilization in Sickle Cell Disease
ABSTRACT Although sickle cell disease (SCD) patients typically manage their pain at home, a small subgroup is frequently hospitalized and accounts for the majority of costs.
1) To identify prospective diagnostic and demographic markers of new periods of high utilization; 2) To identify demographic and diagnostic markers of a persistent rather than moderating course of high utilization; 3) To replicate the finding that high utilization tends to moderate.
The State Inpatient Databases for California, 2004-2007, were used. Patients with new onset periods of high utilization were compared with non-high utilizers, and new high utilizers who moderated were compared with those who had a persistent course.
All hospitals in the state of California.
Patients age 13 years or older in 2004 with a recorded diagnosis of sickle cell disease and at least one hospitalization for crisis during the study period.
Groups from hospitals throughout California were compared on demographics and discharge diagnoses of SCD complications and comorbidities. Patients age 13 years or older in 2004 with a recorded diagnosis of sickle cell disease and at least 1 hospitalization for crisis during the study period were included.
New periods of high utilization were associated with more prior hospitalizations and previous diagnoses of aseptic necrosis and renal disease. High utilization typically moderated. A persistent course was associated with slightly more hospitalizations during the initial year of high utilization, and, subsequently, by more mentions of septicemia and mood disorders.
Overall, high utilization was difficult to predict, as was its course. The diagnoses most associated with high utilization indicated more severe sickle cell disease. Septicemia deserves further investigation as a preventable cause for high utilization, as do mood disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often seek care in the emergency department (ED) for pain associated with vaso-occlusive crises. Research has shown that negative provider attitudes serve as a barrier to care in this patient population. Our aim was to validate a survey that measures attitudes toward SCD patients among ED providers (nurses and physicians) and to compare differences in attitude scores between provider types. We administered the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale, previously validated among internal medicine providers, and the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS) to ED nurses and physicians from two EDs. A total of 215 surveys were returned (63% response rate, 200 with attitude items completed). Three subscales were identified: Negative Attitudes, Uneasiness With Care, and Positive Attitudes. Cronbach's αs exceeded 0.81 for each subscale. Mean (SD) scores for the Negative, Uneasiness, and Positive subscales and MCRS were 61.5 (20.3), 66.1 (17.1), 41.2 (17.8), and 42.2 (8.9), respectively. Compared with physicians, nurses had significantly higher mean Negative Attitude scores and lower Uneasiness scores. A slightly modified version of the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale appears to be a valid measure of ED provider attitudes toward SCD patients. Among ED providers, this scale identified a dimension not observed in research with the original instrument among internal medicine providers. Provider attitudes influence patient-provider interactions and quality of care. The scale we present here has major clinical implications, particularly for advanced practice nurses, who can use the scale not only to assess providers' attitudes toward SCD patients but also to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions to improve those attitudes.Advanced emergency nursing journal 10/2014; 36(4):335-47. DOI:10.1097/TME.0000000000000036
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often seek care in emergency departments (EDs) for severe pain. However, there is evidence that they experience inaccurate assessment, suboptimal care, and inadequate follow-up referrals. The aim of this project was to 1) explore the feasibility of applying a failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) in two EDs examining four processes of care (triage, analgesic management, high risk/high users, and referrals made) for patients with SCD, and 2) report the failures of these care processes in each ED. Methods A FMECA was conducted of ED SCD patient care at two hospitals. A multidisciplinary group examined each step of four processes. Providers identified failures in each step, and then characterized the frequency, impact, and safeguards, resulting in risk categorization. Results Many “high risk” failures existed in both institutions, including a lack of recognition of high-risk or high-user patients and a lack of emphasis on psychosocial referrals. Specific to SCD analgesic management, one setting inconsistently used existing analgesic policies, while the other setting did not have such policies. Conclusion FMECA facilitated the identification of failures of ED SCD care and has guided quality improvement activities. Interventions can focus on improvements in these specific areas targeting improvements in the delivery and organization of ED SCD care. Improvements should correspond with the forthcoming National Heart, Lung and Blood-sponsored guidelines for treatment of patients with sickle cell disease.The western journal of emergency medicine 07/2014; 15(4):446-58. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2014.4.20489
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience a broad range of mental health disorders placing them at risk for more complicated hospitalizations for pain. The current study examined the impact of mental health disorders on admission rates and hospital length of stay (LOS) for vaso-occlusive pain events (VOE) in pediatric patients with SCD. PROCEDURE: Patients (5-18 years old) with a primary discharge diagnosis of SCD with crisis were acquired through the Pediatric Health Information System and categorized by history of mental health disorders (mood disorder, anxiety disorder, disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use disorder). Using a retrospective cohort design, hospital admission rates for VOE were examined as the primary outcome and LOS as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 5,825 patients accounted for 23,561 admissions for SCD with crisis with approximately 8% of the patients having a mental health diagnosis. Longer LOS was found among patients with a history of any mental health diagnosis (P < 0.0001) and within the mood disorder (P < 0.0001), anxiety disorder (P < 0.0001), and substance use disorder (P = 0.01) subtypes. Hospital admissions rates for VOE were higher among patients with a history of any mental health diagnosis (P < 0.0001) and within the mood disorder (P < 0.0001), anxiety disorder (P < 0.0001), disruptive behavior disorder (P = 0.002), and substance use disorder (P < 0.0001) subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with SCD and a history of a mental health diagnosis have longer LOS and higher admission rates for management of VOE. Ultimately, these findings suggest that mental health pose a challenge to the management of sickle cell pain. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2013; 60(7). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24394 · 2.56 Impact Factor