In Vivo and in Vitro Antiviral Effects of Berberine on Influenza Virus
ABSTRACT To explore the potential effects of berberine on influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo.
In vitro anti-influenza virus assays were performed by cytopathogenic effect and neuraminidase assays in Madin Darby canine kidney cells. In vivo anti-influenza virus assays were performed on the viral pneumonia model of mice. The numbers of mice that died within day 2 to day 14 postinfection were recorded to calculate the mortality. On days 2, 4, and 6, the viral titers in the lungs were determined by hemagglutination assay; hematoxylin/eosin staining was used to assess the pathogenic changes of lung tissues; the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte specific chemoattractant molecule (MCP-1) were measured by radio immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) were detected by colorimetric method; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA level of TNF-α and MCP-1.
Berberine showed inhibitory effects on cytopathogenic effects and neuraminidase activity of virus, with the therapeutic index 9.69. In vivo, berberine decreased mice mortality from 90% to 55%, reduced virus titers in the lungs on day 2 postinfection (P<0.05). The lung histology scores were 1.50 ± 0.67, 4.50 ± 1.00, and 5.50 ± 1.00 in the berberine group on days 2, 4, and 6, respectively, which were significantly reduced compared to 2.17 ± 0.22, 6.83 ± 0.44, and 8.50 ± 0.33 in the infected group (P<0.05). The productions of NO and iNOS were repressed by berberine compared with those in the infected group (P<0.01). The transcription and expression of TNF-α were inhibited by berberine on day 4 (P<0.01) and day 6 (P<0.05), and those of MCP-1 were inhibited on day 6 (P<0.01) compared with the infected group.
Berberine exhibited antiviral effects on the influenza virus both in vitro and in vivo. The possible therapeutic mechanism of berberine on influenza-induced viral pneumonia might be inhibiting the virus infection, as well as improving the pathogenic changes by repressing inflammatory substances release.
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ABSTRACT: Berberis vulgaris is a shrub in the family Berberidaceae. B. vulgaris as well as other berberine (BER) containing plants are used medicinally in virtually all-traditional medical systems. In the present study, the efficacy of ethanolic extract of dried root powder of B. vulgaris as anti bacterial, anti fungal and anti hepatitis C was evaluated. Also, its efficacy for induction of phagocytisis and lymphoporiferation was determined. The data showed that B. vulgaris ethanolic extract have strong anti bacterial effect (gram positive and gram negative) at concentrations range from 2.5 to 20 mg/ml. Anti fungal activity was measured according to inhibition of the production of aflatoxine B1 and B2, where ethanolic extract of B. vulgaris was able to inhibit the production of 44 and 98.3% of aflatoxine B1 and 67.2 and 89% of aflatoxine B2 at concentration of 0.01 to 0.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the ethanolic extract inhibits hepatitis C virus replication at concentration of 100 μg/ml, at single dose, while inducing lymphoproliferative effect and phagocytic activity in a dose dependant manner. In conclusion, B. vulgaris extract can be considered an efficient antimicrobial especially hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Aspergillus flavus. This effect could be returned to its immunostimulant capacity as it enhances the activity of peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (PMNC), especially phagocytic cells.Journal of medicinal plant research 06/2013; 7(21):1529-1536. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes food poisoning. The neuraminidase (NA) protein of C. perfringens plays a pivotal role in bacterial proliferation and is considered a novel antibacterial drug target. Based on screens for novel NA inhibitors, a 95% EtOH extract of Corydalis turtschaninovii rhizome showed NA inhibitory activity (68% at 30μg/ml), which resulted in the isolation of 10 isoquinoline alkaloids; namely, palmatine (1), berberine (2), coptisine (3), pseudodehydrocorydaline (4), jatrorrhizine (5), dehydrocorybulbine (6), pseudocoptisine (7), glaucine (8), corydaline (9) and tetrahydrocoptisine (10). Interestingly, seven quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids 1-7 (IC50=12.8±1.5 to 65.2±4.5μM) showed stronger NA inhibitory activity than the tertiary alkaloids 8-10. In addition, highly active compounds 1 and 2 showed reversible non-competitive behavior based on a kinetic study. Molecular docking simulations using the Autodock 4.2 software increased our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of these compounds. In addition, we demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 suppressed bacterial growth.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 09/2014; 22(21). DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2014.09.004 · 2.95 Impact Factor
Phytochemistry, Botany and Metabolism of Alkaloids, Phenolics and Terpenes,, Edited by Ramawat, Kishan Gopal; Mérillon, Jean-Michel, 01/2013: chapter Pharmacological/biological effects of berberine: pages 1301-1329; Springer., ISBN: 978-3-642-22143-9