A qualitative analysis of vaccine safety perceptions and concerns among caretakers in Uganda.
ABSTRACT Parents and caretakers of young children often have concerns about vaccine safety and adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Little is known about vaccine safety perceptions in Uganda and their influence on parental decision-making about infant immunization. The study objectives were: to identify community sources of information on immunization, vaccine safety and AEFI; determine caretakers' knowledge of immunization; identify community concerns/fears about immunization and AEFI and their influence on caretakers' decisions to vaccinate; and obtain an understanding of knowledge, perceptions, and experience of health care workers (HCWs) and policy administrators on vaccine safety and AEFI. Twelve focus group discussions with 136 caretakers who were very or somewhat concerned about vaccine safety and 25 key informant interviews were conducted in two districts (1 urban and 1 rural) with district authorities and health facility staff as well as national level decision-makers between December and April 2006. Content analysis was used to analyze the results. The main themes identified related to general lack of information among caretakers about immunization, perceived immunization benefits, immunization concerns, and misconceptions. Specific caretaker concerns related to vaccine administration, immunization services and vaccine safety. Experiences with AEFI and concerns about vaccine safety negatively affected caretakers' decisions to vaccinate their children, notably in rural areas. HCWs demonstrated knowledge about AEFI and their management although incidences reported to facilities were rare. Inadequate communication between HCWs and caretakers was noted. Concerns and misconceptions about vaccination still exist among caretakers in Uganda and influence decisions to vaccinate. Effective inter personal communication initiated by HCWs towards caretakers is needed.
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ABSTRACT: The HIV epidemic in the south Indian state of Karnataka disproportionately burdens key populations of men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Despite having successfully reduced HIV incidence among certain key populations through the use of targeted intervention, India's HIV epidemic remains one of its greatest public health issues. The best long-term strategy for managing the global HIV epidemic might involve a preventive vaccine; however, vaccine availability cannot guarantee its accessibility or acceptability. Vaccine recommendations from frontline health service providers have previously been identified as useful strategies to enhance vaccine uptake among target groups. This study used structured interviews to explore frontline health service providers' self-identified likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka. A modified social ecological model was then used to categorise factors that might prevent health service providers from recommending an HIV vaccine. Overall, 83% of health service providers reported that they would be very likely to recommend an HIV vaccine to men who have sex with men and female sex workers, while less than one-third of participants identified one or more barrier to vaccine recommendation. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural/political factors were most commonly reported to act as potential barriers to future HIV vaccine recommendation among health service providers in Karnataka. This study adds to the limited body of literature focussing on future HIV vaccine acceptability in low- and middle-income countries and highlights some of the several complexities surrounding vaccine acceptability and uptake among key populations in Karnataka. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Vaccine 12/2014; 33(5). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.009 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundSeveral malaria vaccines are currently in clinical trials and are expected to provide an improved strategy for malaria control. Prior to introduction of a new vaccine, policymakers must consider the socio cultural environment of the region to ensure widespread community approval. This study investigated the acceptance of a malaria vaccine by child caregivers and analysed factors that influence these.MethodsInterviews from a standard questionnaire were conducted with 2,003 caregivers at 695 randomly selected health facilities across Kenya during the Kenya Service Provision Assessment Survey 2010. Multinomial regression of quantitative data was conducted using STATA to analyse determinants of caregivers accepting malaria vaccination of their child.ResultsMothers represented 90% of caregivers interviewed who brought their child to the health facility, and 77% of caregivers were 20-34 years old. Overall, 88% of respondents indicated that they would accept a malaria vaccine, both for a child in their community and their own child. Approval for a vaccine was highest in malaria-endemic Nyanza Province at 98.9%, and lowest in the seasonal transmission area of North Eastern Province at 23%. Although 94% of respondents who had attended at least some school reported they would accept the vaccine for a child, only 56% of those who had never attended school would do so. The likelihood of accepting one’s own child to be immunized was correlated with province, satisfaction with health care services in the facility attended, age of the caregiver, and level of education.ConclusionsResults from this study indicate a need for targeted messages and education on a malaria vaccine, particularly for residents of regions where acceptance is low, older caregivers, and those with low literacy and school-attendance levels. This study provides critical evidence to inform policy for a new malaria vaccine that will support its timely and comprehensive uptake in Kenya.Malaria Journal 05/2014; 13(1):172. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-172 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2013; 89(3). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0643 · 2.74 Impact Factor