Article

Calcium-dependent isoforms of protein kinase C mediate posttetanic potentiation at the calyx of Held.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.77). 06/2011; 70(5):1005-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.04.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High-frequency stimulation leads to a transient increase in the amplitude of evoked synaptic transmission that is known as posttetanic potentiation (PTP). Here we examine the roles of the calcium-dependent protein kinase C isoforms PKCα and PKCβ in PTP at the calyx of Held synapse. In PKCα/β double knockouts, 80% of PTP is eliminated, whereas basal synaptic properties are unaffected. PKCα and PKCβ produce PTP by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles evoked by high-frequency stimulation and by increasing the fraction of this pool released by the first stimulus. PKCα and PKCβ do not facilitate presynaptic calcium currents. The small PTP remaining in double knockouts is mediated partly by an increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude and partly by a mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase. These experiments establish that PKCα and PKCβ are crucial for PTP and suggest that long-lasting presynaptic calcium increases produced by tetanic stimulation may activate these isoforms to produce PTP.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
132 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Posttetanic potentiation (PTP) is a widely observed form of short-term plasticity lasting for tens of seconds after high-frequency stimulation. Here we show that although protein kinase C (PKC) mediates PTP at the calyx of Held synapse in the auditory brainstem before and after hearing onset, PTP is produced primarily by an increased probability of release (p) before hearing onset, and by an increased readily releasable pool of vesicles (RRP) thereafter. We find that these mechanistic differences, which have distinct functional consequences, reflect unexpected differential actions of closely related calcium-dependent PKC isoforms. Prior to hearing onset, when PKCγ and PKCβ are both present, PKCγ mediates PTP by increasing p and partially suppressing PKCβ actions. After hearing onset, PKCγ is absent and PKCβ produces PTP by increasing RRP. In hearing animals, virally expressed PKCγ overrides PKCβ to produce PTP by increasing p. Thus, two similar PKC isoforms mediate PTP in distinctly different ways.
    Neuron 04/2014; · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Munc18-1 is a soluble protein essential for synaptic transmission. To investigate the dynamics of endogenous Munc18-1 in neurons, we created a mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged Munc18-1 from the endogenous munc18-1 locus. We show using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in hippocampal neurons that the majority of Munc18-1 trafficked through axons and targeted to synapses via lateral diffusion together with syntaxin-1. Munc18-1 was strongly expressed at presynaptic terminals, with individual synapses showing a large variation in expression. Axon-synapse exchange rates of Munc18-1 were high: during stimulation, Munc18-1 rapidly dispersed from synapses and reclustered within minutes. Munc18-1 reclustering was independent of syntaxin-1, but required calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Importantly, a PKC-insensitive Munc18-1 mutant did not recluster. We show that synaptic Munc18-1 levels correlate with synaptic strength, and that synapses that recruit more Munc18-1 after stimulation have a larger releasable vesicle pool. Hence, PKC-dependent dynamic control of Munc18-1 levels enables individual synapses to tune their output during periods of activity.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; 204(5):759-75. · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of PKC phosphorylation during short-term enhancement has remained unknown. Here, we use a gene-replacement strategy at the calyx of Held, a large CNS model synapse that expresses robust PTP, to study the molecular mechanisms of PTP. We find that two PKC phosphorylation sites of Munc18-1 are critically important for PTP, which identifies the presynaptic target protein for the action of PKC during PTP. Pharmacological experiments show that a phosphatase normally limits the duration of PTP, and that PTP is initiated by the action of a 'conventional' PKC isoform. Thus, a dynamic PKC phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation cycle of Munc18-1 drives short-term enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01715.001.
    eLife Sciences 01/2014; 3:e01715.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
26 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014