Unità Operativa di Dermatologia, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dipartimento di Anestesiologia, Terapia Intensiva e Scienze Dermatologiche, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.
Amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (APF) is a rare cutaneous disease characterized by relapsing sterile pustules frequently associated with autoimmune disorders. Although APF pathophysiology is still undefined, scattered reports suggest involvement of neutrophils. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of the skin inflammatory infiltrate, selected multifunctional cytokines and effectors of tissue damage in APF and other neutrophilic dermatoses. We studied, by immunohistochemical methods, inflammatory cell markers (CD3, CD163, myeloperoxidase), cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-17), metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) in lesional skin from six patients with APF, 11 with pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), 7 with Sweet's syndrome, and in 20 normal skin samples. Immunoreactivities of CD3, CD163, myeloperoxidase, TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF were significantly higher in APF, PG and Sweet's syndrome than in controls (p=0.0001). IL-8 was more expressed in PG than in APF (P=0.002) and Sweet's syndrome (p=0.001). In APF, MMP-9 reactivity was higher than in Sweet's syndrome (p=0.035), but less intense than in PG (p=0.020). Our study supports the role of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and MMPs as important effectors for the tissue damage in APF similarly to classic neutrophilic dermatoses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic skin condition, charac-terized clinically by painful, recurrent, deep- seated nodules and suppuration, and histologically by hyper-trophic scarring of apocrine gland bearing skin and sinus tracts. The overall consequence of the disease is considerable tissue remodelling and the underlying alterations in innate immunity are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of human beta-defensin 2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in skin lesions of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. A total of 14 skin samples from patients and 2 skin samples from healthy volunteers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Human beta-defensin 2 was negative in 12/14 specimens. Elevated expression of metalloproteinase-2 was observed in keratinocytes, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in dermis, sweat glands, hair follicles and sinus tracts, suggesting a key role for hidradenitis suppurativa pathogenesis. Decreased human beta-defensin 2 in the presence of inflammatory (TNF-α-containing) cells suggests a decreased innate immunity in hidradenitis suppurativa-affected skin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presenting with a micropapillary growth pattern is frequently associated with a prominent neutrophil infiltration into the tumor. The relevance of neutrophil infiltrates for tumor progression, however, is still debated. To gain insight into the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in PDAC, we assessed their effect on pancreatic tumor cells grown in vitro as monolayers. Time-lapse video microscopy showed a PMN-induced dyshesion of the tumor cells, and subsequent experiments revealed that this dyshesion was due to PMN elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin, an adhesion molecule that mediates the intercellular contact of the tumor cells. E-cadherin degradation by elastase or — (for comparison) down-modulation by specific siRNA, significantly increased the migratory capacity of the pancreatic tumor cells, leading to the hypothesis that PMNs could contribute to the invasive tumor growth. To address this issue, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n = 112) were analyzed. We found that E-cadherin expression correlated negatively with PMN infiltration, compatible with the notion that E-cadherin is cleaved by PMN-derived elastase, which in turn could result in the dispersal of the tumor cells, enhanced migratory capacity and thus invasive tumor growth.
European Journal of Immunology 12/2012; 42(12). DOI:10.1002/eji.201242628 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To highlight the recent observations regarding not only research but also the clinical features and management of Sweet's syndrome.
Some of the new insights concerning Sweet's syndrome include: (1) bortezomib-induced Sweet's syndrome (some of which are the histiocytoid variant), (2) a rare extracutaneous manifestation of Sweet's syndrome with cardiovascular involvement including coronary artery occlusion, and (3) the possibility that photosensitivity may have a role in the pathogenesis of Sweet's syndrome.
Animal models of Sweet's syndrome and new associated medication have been observed. The definitive mechanism of pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. Recent observations in paediatric patients suggest evaluation of dermatosis-related cardiac involvement in patients with post-Sweet's syndrome cutis laxa. Treatment advances include antitumour necrosis factor- alpha drugs; however, these medications have also been associated with inducing Sweet's syndrome. Nearly 50 years after the initial description of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis by Dr Robert Douglas Sweet, the dermatosis remains a fascinating condition with regard to laboratory investigation, clinical manifestations and treatment.
Current opinion in hematology 01/2013; 20(1):26-35. DOI:10.1097/MOH.0b013e32835ad132 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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