No Association Between a Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, rs4141463, in the MACROD2 Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics (Impact Factor: 3.42). 09/2011; 156B(6):633-9. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31201
Source: PubMed


The Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium recently reported genome-wide significant association between autism and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism marker, rs4141463, within the MACROD2 gene. In the present study we attempted to replicate this finding using an independent case-control design of 1,170 cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (874 of which fulfilled narrow criteria for Autism (A)) from five centers within Europe (UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Iceland), and 35,307 controls. The combined sample size gave us a non-centrality parameter (NCP) of 11.9, with 93% power to detect allelic association of rs4141463 at an alpha of 0.05 with odds ratio of 0.84 (the best odds ratio estimate of the AGP Consortium data), and for the narrow diagnosis of autism, an NCP of 8.9 and power of 85%. Our case-control data were analyzed for association, stratified by each center, and the summary statistics were combined using the meta-analysis program, GWAMA. This resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI 0.944-1.133), with a P-value of 0.5 for ASD and OR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.11) with P-value = 0.85 for the Autism (A) sub-group. Therefore, this study does not provide support for the reported association between rs4141463 and autism.

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    • "This further underscores the complex genomic architecture of ASD. Large-scale genome-wide association studies have detected common variants in genes such as CDH9, CDH10, NRXN1 and others, which often could not be independently replicated [Autism Genome Project Consortium et al., 2007; Ma et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Curran et al., 2011]. Overall, individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for ASD [Anney et al., 2012] but by acting additively may explain as much as 60% of the narrow-sense heritability in ASD individuals from multiplex families and approximately 40% for simplex families [Klei et al., 2012]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a high degree of heritability, only a few mutated genes and mostly de novo copy number variations (CNVs) with a high phenotypic impact have as yet been identified. In families with multiple ASD patients, transmitted CNVs often do not appear to cosegregate with disease. Therefore, also transmitted single nucleotide variants which escape detection if genetic analyses were limited to CNVs may contribute to disease risk. In several studies of ASD patients, CNVs covering at least one gene of the contactin gene family were found. To determine whether there is evidence for a contribution of transmitted variants in contactin genes, a cohort of 67 ASD patients and a population-based reference of 117 healthy individuals, who were not related to the ASD families, were compared. In total, 1,648 SNPs, spanning 12.1 Mb of genomic DNA, were examined. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the strongest signal was found for a SNP located within the CNTN5 gene (rs6590473 [G], p = 4.09 × 10(-7); OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 1.603-6.151). In the ASD cohort, a combination of risk alleles of SNPs in CNTN6 (rs9878022 [A]; OR = 3.749) and in CNTNAP2 (rs7804520 [G]; OR = 2.437) was found more frequently than would be expected under random segregation, albeit this association was not statistically significant. The latter finding is consistent with a polygenic disease model in which multiple mutagenic mechanisms, operating concomitantly, elicit the ASD phenotype. Altogether, this study corroborates the possible involvement of contactins in ASD, which has been indicated by earlier studies of CNVs.
    Molecular syndromology 08/2014; 5(5):229-35. DOI:10.1159/000362891
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    • "Thus, whether SNPs in MACROD2 or in its intra-genic antisense RNA genes play a role in the risk for ASD remains an open question. If they do, however, there can now be little doubt that their effect size is modest on the basis of our results and others (24). "
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    ABSTRACT: While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the contribution of common variation to the risk of developing ASD is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating the association of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect the risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest P-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. In contrast, allele scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect the risk for ASD but their individual effects are modest.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2012; 21(21):4781-92. DOI:10.1093/hmg/dds301 · 6.39 Impact Factor
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    • "The single genome-wide significant result found on chromosome 20p12.1 fell within the MACRO domain containing protein 2 gene. However, at least one subsequent study has failed to replicate this association [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Autism spectrum disorder is a severe early onset neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability but significant heterogeneity. Traditional genome-wide approaches to test for an association of common variants with autism susceptibility risk have met with limited success. However, novel methods to identify moderate risk alleles in attainable sample sizes are now gaining momentum. Methods In this study, we utilized publically available genome-wide association study data from the Autism Genome Project and annotated the results (P <0.001) for expression quantitative trait loci present in the parietal lobe (GSE35977), cerebellum (GSE35974) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (GSE7761). We then performed a test of enrichment by comparing these results to simulated data conditioned on minor allele frequency to generate an empirical P-value indicating statistically significant enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci in top results from the autism genome-wide association study. Results Our findings show a global enrichment of brain expression quantitative trait loci, but not lymphoblastoid cell line expression quantitative trait loci, among top single nucleotide polymorphisms from an autism genome-wide association study. Additionally, the data implicates individual genes SLC25A12, PANX1 and PANX2 as well as pathways previously implicated in autism. Conclusions These findings provide supportive rationale for the use of annotation-based approaches to genome-wide association studies.
    Molecular Autism 05/2012; 3(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-3-3 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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