The impact of birth spacing on subsequent feto-infant outcomes among community enrollees of a Federal Healthy Start project
ABSTRACT Numerous studies have shown an association between shorter birth intervals, and several adverse fetal outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interconception care on fetal outcomes associated with sub-optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Federal Healthy Start's interconception care services on IPI and fetal growth outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study used records from the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start program in Tampa, Florida linked to Florida vital statistics data covering the period 2002-2009. Only first and second pregnancies were considered, and interpregnancy interval (IPI), the exposure of interest, was categorized in months as 0-5, 6-17, 18-23, and ≥24. The following feto-infant morbidities were considered as primary outcomes: LBW, PTB, and SGA. A composite variable coding the presence of any of the aforementioned adverse fetal events was also created. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was applied Overall, mothers with the shortest IPI (0-5 months: AOR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.23-1.56) and longest IPI (≥60 months: AOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23) were at a greater risk for adverse fetal growth outcomes, compared to the referent category (18-23 months). Our findings support the need for inter conception care that addresses IPI and delayed childbearing among women.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) birthweights increase autism risk. This was a retrospective cohort analysis comparing children with autism (n = 20,206) within a birth cohort (n = 5,979,605). Stratification by sex and birthweight percentile (SGA, <5th or 5-10th percentile; appropriate size for gestational age [GA], >10th to <90th percentile; LGA, either 90-95th or >95th percentile) preceded Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis for GA effect, and multivariate analysis. Autism risk was increased in preterm SGA (<5th percentile) infants 23-31 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.35) and 32-33 weeks (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.16-2.87), and term LGA (>95th percentile) infants 39-41 weeks (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.26), but was decreased in preterm LGA infants 23-31 weeks (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95). SGA was associated with autism in preterm infants, while LGA demonstrated dichotomous risk by GA, with increased risk at term, and decreased risk in the premature infants. These findings likely reflect disparate pathophysiologies, and should influence prenatal counseling, pediatric autism screening, and further autism research.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 04/2012; 206(4):314.e1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.01.044 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites.Journal of midwifery & women's health 11/2013; 58(6):683-9. DOI:10.1111/jmwh.12132 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The absence of fathers during pregnancy increases the risk of feto-infant morbidities, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small-for-gestational age. Previous research has shown that the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start project (CHHS)-a federally funded initiative in Tampa, Florida-has improved birth outcomes. This study explores the effectiveness of the CHHS project in ameliorating the adverse effects of fathers' absence during pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study used CHHS records linked to vital statistics and hospital discharge data (1998-2007). The study population consisted of women who had a singleton birth with an absent father during pregnancy. Women were categorized based on residence in the CHHS service area. Propensity score matching was used to match cases (CHHS) to controls (rest of Florida). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for matched observations. Women residing in the CHHS service area were more likely to be high school graduates, black, younger (<35 years), and to have adequate prenatal care compared to controls (p < 0.01). These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Mothers with absent fathers in the CHHS service area had a reduced likelihood of LBW (OR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.65-0.89), PTB (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.62-0.84), very low birth weight (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.35-0.72) and very preterm birth (OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.34-0.69) compared to their counterparts in the rest of the state. This study demonstrates that a Federal Healthy Start project contributed to a significant reduction in adverse fetal birth outcomes in families with absent fathers.Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2014; 18(9). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1451-x · 2.24 Impact Factor