Numerous studies have shown an association between shorter birth intervals, and several adverse fetal outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interconception care on fetal outcomes associated with sub-optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Federal Healthy Start's interconception care services on IPI and fetal growth outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study used records from the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start program in Tampa, Florida linked to Florida vital statistics data covering the period 2002-2009. Only first and second pregnancies were considered, and interpregnancy interval (IPI), the exposure of interest, was categorized in months as 0-5, 6-17, 18-23, and ≥24. The following feto-infant morbidities were considered as primary outcomes: LBW, PTB, and SGA. A composite variable coding the presence of any of the aforementioned adverse fetal events was also created. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was applied Overall, mothers with the shortest IPI (0-5 months: AOR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.23-1.56) and longest IPI (≥60 months: AOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23) were at a greater risk for adverse fetal growth outcomes, compared to the referent category (18-23 months). Our findings support the need for inter conception care that addresses IPI and delayed childbearing among women.
"In this study, there was a significant, strong, positive correlation between birth weight and maternal and cord zinc concentrations, as found in a previous study . A short inter-pregnancy interval is a risk factor for developing LBW [41-43]. Nevertheless, this factor was not significant in our study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Low birth weight (LBW) is a worldwide health problem, especially in developing countries. We conducted a case–control study at Medani Hospital, Sudan. Cases were women who delivered a LBW (<2500 g) newborn and consecutive women who delivered a normal weight (>2500 g) newborn were controls. Questionnaires were used to collect clinical data. Zinc and copper levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The two groups (50 in each arm) were well matched in their basic characteristics. Median (25–75th interquartile range) maternal zinc (62.9 [36.3–96.8] vs. 96.2 [84.6–125.7] μg/dl; P <0.001) and copper (81.6 [23.7–167.5] vs. 139.8 [31.9–186.2] μg/dl; P = 0.04) levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls. Cord copper levels in cases were significantly lower than those in controls (108 [55.1–157.9] vs. 147.5 [84.5–185.2] μg/dl; P = 0.02). There were significant direct correlations between birth weight and maternal copper levels and maternal and cord zinc levels.
Maternal zinc and copper levels, as well as cord copper levels, are lower in LBW newborns than in those with normal weight.
BMC Research Notes 06/2014; 7(1):386. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-386
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) birthweights increase autism risk.
This was a retrospective cohort analysis comparing children with autism (n = 20,206) within a birth cohort (n = 5,979,605). Stratification by sex and birthweight percentile (SGA, <5th or 5-10th percentile; appropriate size for gestational age [GA], >10th to <90th percentile; LGA, either 90-95th or >95th percentile) preceded Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis for GA effect, and multivariate analysis.
Autism risk was increased in preterm SGA (<5th percentile) infants 23-31 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.35) and 32-33 weeks (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.16-2.87), and term LGA (>95th percentile) infants 39-41 weeks (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.26), but was decreased in preterm LGA infants 23-31 weeks (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95).
SGA was associated with autism in preterm infants, while LGA demonstrated dichotomous risk by GA, with increased risk at term, and decreased risk in the premature infants. These findings likely reflect disparate pathophysiologies, and should influence prenatal counseling, pediatric autism screening, and further autism research.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 04/2012; 206(4):314.e1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.01.044 · 4.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites.
Journal of midwifery & women's health 11/2013; 58(6):683-9. DOI:10.1111/jmwh.12132 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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