Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus pseudotyped lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer to fetal ovine lung.
ABSTRACT Viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the postnatal respiratory epithelium has, in general, been of low efficiency due to physical and immunological barriers, non-apical location of cellular receptors critical for viral uptake and limited transduction of resident stem/progenitor cells. These obstacles may be overcome using a prenatal strategy. In this study, HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV-LV), baculovirus GP64 (GP64-LV), Ebola Zaire-LV or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVg-LV) and the adeno-associated virus-2/6.2 (AAV2/6.2) were compared for in utero transfer of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene to ovine lung epithelium between days 65 and 78 of gestation. GFP expression was examined on day 85 or 136 of gestation (term is ∼145 days). The percentage of the respiratory epithelial cells expressing GFP in fetal sheep that received the JSRV-LV (3.18 × 10(8)-6.85 × 10(9) viral particles per fetus) was 24.6±0.9% at 3 weeks postinjection (day 85) and 29.9±4.8% at 10 weeks postinjection (day 136). Expression was limited to the surface epithelium lining fetal airways <100 μm internal diameter. Fetal airways were amenable to VSVg-LV transduction, although the percentage of epithelial expression was low (6.6±0.6%) at 1 week postinjection. GP64-LV, Ebola Zaire-LV and AAV2/6.2 failed to transduce the fetal ovine lung under these conditions. These data demonstrate that prenatal lung gene transfer with LV engineered to target apical surface receptors can provide sustained and high levels of transgene expression and support the therapeutic potential of prenatal gene transfer for the treatment of congenital lung diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Echovirus 7 enters polarized Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells by a clathrin-mediated endocytic process, then moves through the endosomal system before releasing its genome into the cytoplasm. We examined the possible role in virus entry of core components of the autophagy machinery. We found that depletion of Beclin-1, Atg12, Atg14, Atg16, or LC3 with specific siRNAs inhibited echovirus 7 infection upstream of uncoating, but had little or no effect on virus attachment to the cell surface. These data indicate that multiple autophagy-related proteins are important for one or more events that occur after the virus has bound its receptor on the cell surface but before RNA is released from the virus capsid. Although we have not determined the mechanism by which each protein contributes to virus entry, we found that stable depletion of Atg16L1 interfered with virus internalization from the cell surface rather than with intracellular trafficking. Autophagy gene products may thus participate in the endocytic process that moves virus into polarized Caco-2 cells.Journal of Virology 10/2013; 88(1). DOI:10.1128/JVI.02706-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious neoplasm of the secretory epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa of sheep and goats. It is associated with the betaretrovirus, enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), but a causative relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, 14-day-old lambs were experimentally infected via nebulization with cell-free tumor filtrates derived from naturally occurring cases of ENA. At 12 weeks post-infection (wpi), one of the five infected lambs developed clinical signs, including continuous nasal discharge and open mouth breathing, and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed the presence of a large bilateral tumor occupying the nasal cavity. At 45 wpi, when the study was terminated, none of the remaining infected sheep showed evidence of tumors either by computed tomography or post-mortem examination. ENTV-1 proviral DNA was detected in the nose, lung, spleen, liver and kidney of the animal with experimentally induced ENA, however there was no evidence of viral protein expression in tissues other than the nose. Density gradient analysis of virus particles purified from the experimentally induced nasal tumor revealed a peak reverse transcriptase (RT) activity at a buoyant density of 1.22 g/mL which was higher than the 1.18 g/mL density of peak RT activity of virus purified from naturally induced ENA. While the 1.22 g/mL fraction contained primarily immature unprocessed virus particles, mature virus particles with a similar morphology to naturally occurring ENA could be identified by electron microscopy. Full-length sequence analysis of the ENTV-1 genome from the experimentally induced tumor revealed very few nucleotide changes relative to the original inoculum with only one conservative amino acid change. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ENTV-1 is associated with transmissible ENA in sheep and that under experimental conditions, lethal tumors are capable of developing in as little as 12 wpi demonstrating the acutely oncogenic nature of this ovine betaretrovirus.Veterinary Research 07/2013; 44(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-44-66 · 3.38 Impact Factor