Primary Hepatolithiasis, Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis, and Oriental Cholangiohepatitis-A Tale of 3 Countries
Department of Pathology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, China.Advances in anatomic pathology (Impact Factor: 3.23). 07/2011; 18(4):318-28. DOI: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e318220fb75
Primary hepatolithiasis (HL), recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, and oriental cholangiohepatitis are terms commonly used in Japan, Hong Kong, and Korea respectively, and describing the different aspects of the same disease, with "HL" indicating the pathologic changes, "recurrent pyogenic cholangitis" emphasizing the clinical presentation and suppurative inflammation, and "oriental cholangiohepatitis" highlighting its ethnic preference and mysterious nature. HL is predominantly a disease of the far east and shows great regional differences in the incidence and the type of intrahepatic stones. Pathologically, it is characterized by pigmented calcium bilirubinate stones within dilated intrahepatic bile ducts featuring chronic inflammation, mural fibrosis, and proliferation of peribiliary glands, without extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Episodes of suppurative inflammation cumulate in sclerosing cholangitis in peripheral ducts and parenchymal fibrosis from scarring and collapse. Mass-forming inflammatory pseudotumor and neoplasms-like intraductal papillary neoplasms and cholangiocarcinoma are increasingly recognized complications. Bacterial infection and dietary factors are believed to be important in the formation of pigment stones within intrahepatic bile ducts, whereas parasitic infestation is likely coincidental. With improvement of environmental conditions and westernization of diet, the incidence of pigment stones has decreased. At the same time, cholesterol stones with milder clinical manifestations and pathologic changes are increasingly recognized, and for which stone dissolution therapy can be considered. Understanding the underlying pathology avoids confusion with other diseases more prevalent in the western world, and allows correct selection of the appropriate treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Malignancies arising from the biliary tract can arise from the epithelial lining of the biliary tract and surrounding tissues. Conditions that predispose to malignancy as well as preneoplastic changes in biliary tract epithelia have been identified. In this overview, we discuss preneoplastic conditions of the biliary tract and emphasize their clinical relevance. Chronic biliary tract inflammation predisposes to cancer in the biliary tract. Biliary tract carcinogenesis involves a multistep process as a consequence of chronic biliary epithelial injury or inflammation. Reminiscent of other gastrointestinal epithelial malignancies such as gastric, colon, and pancreatic cancer, biliary tract cancers may evolve via multistep progression from epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia to malignant transformation. The potential role of initiating cells is also becoming recognized. In spite of improved risk factor recognition, and advances in diagnostic tools, the early diagnosis of pre-malignant or malignant biliary tract conditions is extremely challenging, and there is a paucity of evidence on which to base their management. As a result, the role of pre-emptive surgery remains largely undefined.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2012; 397(6):861-7. DOI:10.1007/s00423-012-0943-7 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatolithiasis removal is associated with high rates of postoperative residual and recurrence, which in some cases may require multiple surgeries. The progress and development of laparoscopic techniques introduced a new way of treating hepatolithiasis. However, the selection criteria for laparoscopic hepatolithiasis surgery, particularly among patients with a history of biliary surgery, remain undetermined. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of reoperation for the treatment of hepatolithiasis via a laparoscopic approach. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the perioperative course and outcomes was performed on 90 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for hepatolithiasis between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Thirty-eight patients had previous biliary tract operative procedures (PB group) and 52 patients had no previous biliary tract procedures (NPB). Results: There was no significant difference in operative time (342.3 ± 101.0 vs. 334.1 ± 102.7 min), intraoperative blood loss (561.2 ± 458.8 vs. 546.3 ± 570.5 ml), intraoperative transfusion (15.8 vs. 19.2 %), postoperative hospitalization (12.6 ± 4.2 vs. 13.4 % ± 6.3 days), postoperative complications (18.4 vs. 23.1 %), conversion to open laparotomy (10.5 vs. 9.6 %), or intraoperative stone clearance rate (94.7 vs. 90.4 %). There was also no significant difference in stone recurrence (7.9 vs. 11.5 %) and recurrent cholangitis (5.3 vs. 13.5 %) at a mean of 19 months of follow-up (range, 3-51 months) for PB patients compared to NPB patients. The final stone clearance rate was 100 % in both groups. Conclusions: Reoperation for hepatolithiasis by laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible for selected patients who have undergone previous biliary operations.Surgical Endoscopy 01/2013; 27(4). DOI:10.1007/s00464-012-2606-8 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes typical diseases and morbidities classified in the category of miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis. The paper also comments on the evidence presented in the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG 07) published in 2007 and the evidence reported subsequently, as well as miscellaneous etiology that has not so far been touched on. (1) Oriental cholangitis is the type of cholangitis that occurs following intrahepatic stones and is frequently referred to as an endemic disease in Southeast Asian regions. The characteristics and diagnosis of oriental cholangitis are also commented on. (2) TG 07 recommended percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with cholestasis (many of the patients have obstructive jaundice or acute cholangitis and present clinical signs due to hilar biliary stenosis or obstruction). However, the usefulness of endoscopic naso-biliary drainage has increased along with the spread of endoscopic biliary drainage procedures. (3) As for biliary tract infections in patients who underwent biliary tract surgery, the incidence rate of cholangitis after reconstruction of the biliary tract and liver transplantation is presented. (4) As for primary sclerosing cholangitis, the frequency, age of predilection and the rate of combination of inflammatory enteropathy and biliary tract cancer are presented. (5) In the case of acalculous cholecystitis, the frequency of occurrence, causative factors and complications as well as the frequency of gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder perforation and diagnostic accuracy are included in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13).Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0565-z · 2.99 Impact Factor
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