Posaconazole plasma concentrations in critically ill patients.
ABSTRACT Posaconazole is an azole antifungal agent with a broad spectrum of activity and a manageable side-effect profile. Although the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole have been described in healthy volunteers who received the drug by means of a nasogastric tube or with nutritional supplements, the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole have not been reported in critically ill patients.
Twenty-seven patients in the general intensive care unit managed according to standard protocols were randomly allocated to dose regimens of either 400 mg twice daily or 200 mg 4 times daily. Plasma samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis after the first dose and at steady-state. Posaconazole plasma concentrations were compared with suggested effect targets for prophylaxis and treatment.
Mean Cmin steady-state plasma concentrations of posaconazole were low for both regimens (306 and 137 ng/mL for 400 mg twice daily and 200 mg 4 times daily regimens, respectively), as was total exposure to posaconazole in each group [area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) for first dose: 761 and 299 μg·h/L]. Only 17% of patients achieved steady-state Cmin posaconazole plasma concentrations above the suggested target for prophylaxis, and only one patient had a Cmin posaconazole concentration that exceeded the suggested target for treatment effect. Systemic exposure to posaconazole seemed to be subtherapeutic in most patients in this cohort. Poor absorption of posaconazole due to drug interactions may explain the low systemic exposure; however, further investigation is necessary.
These data suggest that there is a need for an intraveneous formulation of the drug if it is to be used effectively in critically ill patients, and therapeutic drug monitoring is an essential tool in this setting to identify patients with low systemic exposure to prevent therapeutic failure.
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ABSTRACT: To describe current enteral nutrition-prescribing practices for critically ill patients, and to identify factors associated with initiation of, and tolerance to, enteral nutrition. A prospective, cohort study. Two tertiary care medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU) in Ontario, Canada. We enrolled 99 consecutive patients who were expected to stay in the ICU for > 3 days and who were unable to tolerate oral nutrition. We followed patients for 21 days or until they tolerated enteral nutrition, tolerated oral nutrition, were discharged from the ICU, or died. We recorded time elapsed from ICU admission to initiation and tolerance of enteral feedings, and examined factors associated with these events. We defined tolerance as receiving 90% of estimated daily energy requirements for > 48 hrs without gastrointestinal dysfunction (i.e., high gastric residuals, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal distention). Seventy-three (74%) of 99 patients were started on enteral feedings an average 3.1 days (range 1 to 18) after ICU admission. Of 26 patients never started on enteral nutrition, three (12.5%) patients eventually tolerated oral nutrition, 14 (54.0%) patients were discharged from the ICU, and seven (27.0%) patients died. Reasons for not initiating enteral nutrition included absence of bowel sounds (27.0%), high nasogastric drainage (16.9%), contraindication to enteral nutrition (16.7%), tolerance of oral nutrition (6.8%), and no apparent reason (5.1%). Abdominal surgery, use of vasoactive drugs, and admission to one hospital made initiation of enteral nutrition less likely, whereas presence of bowel sounds and admission to the other hospital made initiation of enteral nutrition more likely. Thirty-five (42.9%) of 73 patients started on enteral nutrition achieved tolerance of the regimen. The average time from ICU admission to tolerance of feedings was 5.8 days (range 1 to 14). Once started on enteral nutrition, the most common reasons for decreasing or discontinuing feedings included high gastric residuals (51.0%), mechanical feeding tube problems (15.4%), medical or surgical procedures (5.4%), and vomiting (5.1%). Use of paralytic agents and the presence of high gastric residuals were associated with intolerance. Of 38 patients who did not achieve tolerance, 20 (52.6%) patients were discharged from the ICU, eight (21.0%) patients died, and eight (21.0%) patients eventually tolerated oral nutrition. Enteral nutrition is not started in all eligible ICU patients. Approximately half of those patients receiving enteral nutrition achieved tolerance of the regimen. Gastrointestinal dysfunction causing intolerance to enteral nutrition is a common reason for not starting, or discontinuing, feedings.Critical Care Medicine 06/1995; 23(6):1055-60. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of the triazole antimycotics fluconazole and itraconazole was investigated in a randomised, parallel group, single dose study in 24 healthy subjects. Each group took either a 100 mg capsule of fluconazole or a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole, pre-prandially or after a light meal or a full meal, in a three-way crossover design. Gastric and intestinal pH were measured with a co-administered radiotelemetric pH capsule, and gastric emptying time of the capsule (GET) was taken as the maximum gastric residence time of drug and food. The plasma AUC and Cmax of itraconazole were significantly different under the various conditions and the mean AUC was greatest after the full meal. The bioavailability (90% confidence intervals) of itraconazole relative to that after the full meal, was 54% (41-77%) on an empty stomach and 86% (65-102%) after a light meal. The criteria for bioequivalence were not attained. In contrast, the bioavailability (90% CI) of fluconazole relative to the full meal was 110% pre-prandially (100-115%) and 102% after the light meal (88-103%), and the criteria for bioequivalence were attained. Itraconazole absorption was promoted by low stomach pH, long gastric retention time and a high fat content of the coadministered meal, whereas the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole was relatively insensitive to physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/1994; 46(2):147-50. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antifungal efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of posaconazole (SCH 56592) (POC) were investigated in treatment and prophylaxis of primary pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Antifungal therapy consisted of POC at 2, 6, and 20 mg/kg of body weight per os; itraconazole (ITC) at 2, 6, and 20 mg/kg per os; or amphotericin B (AMB) at 1 mg/kg intravenously. Rabbits treated with POC showed a significant improvement in survival and significant reductions in pulmonary infarct scores, total lung weights, numbers of pulmonary CFU per gram, numbers of computerized-tomography-monitored pulmonary lesions, and levels of galactomannan antigenemia. AMB and POC had comparable therapeutic efficacies by all parameters. By comparison, animals treated with ITC had no significant changes in outcome variables in comparison to those of untreated controls (UC). Rabbits receiving prophylactic POC at all dosages showed a significant reduction in infarct scores, total lung weights, and organism clearance from lung tissue in comparison to results for UC (P < 0.01). There was dosage-dependent microbiological clearance of A. fumigatus from lung tissue in response to POC. Serum creatinine levels were greater (P < 0.01) in AMB-treated animals than in UC and POC- or ITC-treated rabbits. There was no elevation of serum hepatic transaminase levels in POC- or ITC-treated rabbits. The pharmacokinetics of POC and ITC in plasma demonstrated dose dependency after multiple dosing. The 2-, 6-, and 20-mg/kg dosages of POC maintained plasma drug levels above the MICs for the entire 24-h dosing interval. In summary, POC at > or =6 mg/kg/day per os generated sustained concentrations in plasma of > or =1 microg/ml that were as effective in the treatment and prevention of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as AMB at 1 mg/kg/day and more effective than cyclodextrin ITC at > or =6 mg/kg/day per os in persistently neutropenic rabbits.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2001; 45(3):857-69. · 4.57 Impact Factor