Abacavir Use and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Events in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era
ABSTRACT Some studies have suggested that exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Using the Veterans Health Administration's Clinical Case Registry we calculated the risk of AMI and cerebrovascular events (CVA) associated with the cumulative use of abacavir and other nucleoside combinations. We also evaluated the impact of pre-existing chronic kidney disease on the selection of abacavir versus tenofovir in the last recorded ART regimen, and on highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated AMI and CVA risks.
A total of 19,424 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients contributed 76,376 patient-years of follow. After adjusting for age, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and smoking, the hazard ratio (HR) for each year of abacavir use was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], .92-1.50; P=.191) for AMI and 1.16 (95% CI, .98-1.37; P=.096) for CVA. Abacavir use was more common among patients with prior chronic kidney disease than was tenofovir use (12.46% versus 7.15%; P=.0001), and chronic kidney disease was associated with a significantly higher risk of AMI (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.73-3.36), and CVA (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.44-2.24). Compared with patients who received neither tenofovir nor abacavir, patients who received tenofovir had lower risk of AMI (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, .08-.33; P=.0001) and CVA (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, .15-.32; P=.001). Use of abacavir was associated with lower risk of CVA (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, .45-.79).
We observed no association between cumulative or current abacavir use and AMI or CVA. Abacavir use was more common than was tenofovir use among patients with prior chronic kidney disease, and chronic kidney disease independently predicted higher rates of AMI and CVA.
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- "Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain a potential increase in the incidence of premature aging and coronary events in these patients [3, 4, 18–23]. Some mechanisms are related to antiretroviral therapy, such as the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by thymidine analogues    or protease inhibitor-(PI-) related dyslipemia    , while the virus itself contributes to increased cardiovascular risk by a chronic inflammatory effect or a direct effect on endothelial and other cells   . These factors, together with the increased incidence of traditional CVRF in HIV-1-infected patients, could pave the way to the development of coronary events [4, 8–14, 16, 19–24]. "
ABSTRACT: Background. There are conflicting data on the prevalence of coronary events and the quality of the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in HIV-infected patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence of coronary events and to evaluate the management of CVRF in a Mediterranean cohort of 3760 HIV-1-infected patients from April 1983 through June 2011. Results. We identified 81 patients with a history of a coronary event (prevalence 2.15%); 83% of them suffered an acute myocardial infarction. At the time of the coronary event, CVRF were highly prevalent (60.5% hypertension, 48% dyslipidemia, and 16% diabetes mellitus). Other CVRF, such as smoking, hypertension, lack of exercise, and body mass index, were not routinely assessed. After the coronary event, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.025) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004) was observed. However, the percentage of patients who maintained LDL-cholesterol > 100 mg/dL remained stable (from 46% to 41%, P = 0.103). Patients using protease inhibitors associated with a favorable lipid profile increased over time (P = 0.028). Conclusions. The prevalence of coronary events in our cohort is low. CVRF prevalence is high and their management is far from optimal. More aggressive interventions should be implemented to diminish cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:823058. DOI:10.1155/2014/823058 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent data regarding the consequences of untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the expansion of treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults with HIV infection. To provide updated recommendations for management of HIV-infected adults, using antiretroviral drugs and laboratory monitoring tools available in the international, developed-world setting. This report provides guidelines for when to initiate antiretroviral therapy, selection of appropriate initial regimens, patient monitoring, when to change therapy, and what regimens to use when changing. A panel with expertise in HIV research and clinical care reviewed relevant data published or presented at selected scientific conferences since the last panel report through April 2010. Data were identified through a PubMed search, review of scientific conference abstracts, and requests to antiretroviral drug manufacturers for updated clinical trials and adverse event data. New evidence was reviewed by the panel. Recommendations were drafted by section writing committees and reviewed and edited by the entire panel. The quality and strength of the evidence were rated and recommendations were made by full panel consensus. Patient readiness for treatment should be confirmed before initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Therapy is recommended for asymptomatic patients with a CD4 cell count < or = 500/microL, for all symptomatic patients, and those with specific conditions and comorbidities. Therapy should be considered for asymptomatic patients with CD4 cell count > 500/microL. Components of the initial and subsequent regimens must be individualized, particularly in the context of concurrent conditions. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment should be monitored regularly; treatment failure should be detected and managed early, with the goal of therapy, even in heavily pretreated patients, being HIV-1 RNA suppression below commercially available assay quantification limits.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2010; 304(3):321-33. DOI:10.1001/jama.2010.1004 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of abacavir (ABC) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in some cohort studies. However, no excess risk of myocardial infarction (MI) with ABC therapy has been observed in individual randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and in the aggregated clinical trials database maintained by the manufacturer of ABC. To combine all the evidence from RCTs by means of meta-analysis to estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing ABC on MI and overall major cardiovascular events (CVEs). Primary outcomes included MI, CVE, adverse events requiring discontinuation of treatment, and overall mortality. We used a conventional Mantel-Haenszel method, with risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effect model. Data were from 28 primary RCTs (9233 participants) comparing ABC-containing cART (4376 participants) to other regimens not containing ABC (4857 controls). MI data were available from 18 trials (31 episodes in 7054 patients) and CVE data from 20 trials (79 episodes in 7899 patients). Compared to the controls, ABC use did not increase significantly the occurrence of MI (risk ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.39-1.35; P = 0.31), CVE (risk ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.62-1.44; P = 0.80), overall mortality (risk ratio 1.20, 95% CI 0.63-2.27; P = 0.58), and adverse events requiring discontinuation of treatment (risk ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-1.00; P = 0.05). This meta-analysis of RCTs does not support the hypothesis that ABC-containing cART regimens carry a greater risk of MI or major cardiovascular events relative to comparator cART.AIDS (London, England) 06/2011; 25(16):1993-2004. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328349c6ee · 6.56 Impact Factor