Systemic mast cell degranulation increases mortality during polymicrobial septic peritonitis in mice.
ABSTRACT MCs are required for an effective host response during septic peritonitis. Local MC degranulation facilitates neutrophil recruitment, activation, and bacterial killing. However, the role of MCs located distant from the site of infection is unknown. We studied the temporal and spacial degranulation of MCs following CLP-induced septic peritonitis. The functional importance of systemic MC degranulation during infection was evaluated by compartment-specific MC reconstitution. Serum histamine, reflecting MC degranulation, was elevated 4 h after onset of septic peritonitis. Histologic examination revealed progressive MC degranulation in select tissues during the first 24 h of infection. MC-deficient Wsh mice, reconstituted only in the peritoneal compartment, had improved survival after CLP compared with controls. However, reconstitution in peritoneal plus systemic compartments worsened survival after CLP. IL-6 contributed to the detrimental effects of systemic MCs on survival, as mice systemically reconstituted with IL-6(-/-) MCs were more likely to survive than control mice. These results indicate that in contrast to the benefits of local MC activation during infection, systemic MC activation worsens survival during CLP-induced sepsis.
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Mast cells are mainly located at the host-environment interface where they function as sentinels. To study the role of mast cells during pneumonia caused by S.pneumoniae. Lung tissue of patients who had died from pneumococcal pneumonia or a non-pulmonary cause was stained for mast cells and tryptase. Wild type (WT) and mast cell deficient (Kit(W-sh/W-sh)) mice were observed or sacrificed after induction of pneumonia by intranasal inoculation of S.pneumoniae. In separate experiments WT mice were treated with mast cell stabilizing agents doxantrazole or cromoglycate. The constitutive presence of tryptase positive mast cells was reduced in affected lungs from pneumonia patients. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed a prolonged survival during the first days after LD100 and LD50 infection, while overall mortality did not differ from that in WT mice. Relative to WT mice, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed reduced bacterial counts with less bacterial dissemination to distant organs and less inflammation. Neither doxantrazole nor cromoglycate influenced antibacterial defense or inflammatory responses after airway infection with S.pneumoniae. Mast cells exhibit an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism independent of degranulation.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes enhances susceptibility to infection and favors the sepsis development. In addition, diabetic mice produced higher levels of histamine in several tissues and in the blood after LPS stimulation than nondiabetic mice. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of mast cells (MCs) and histamine in neutrophil migration and, consequently, infection control in diabetic mice with mild sepsis (MS) induced by cecum ligation and puncture. We used female BALB/c, MC-sufficient (WB/B6), MC-deficient (W/W(v)), and NOD mice. Diabetic mice given MS displayed 100% mortality within 24 h, whereas all nondiabetic mice survived for at least 5 d. The mortality rate of diabetic mice was reduced to 57% after the depletion of MC granules with compound 48/80. Moreover, this pretreatment increased neutrophil migration to the focus of infection, which reduced systemic inflammatory response and bacteremia. The downregulation of CXCR2 and upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in neutrophils was prevented by pretreatment of diabetic mice given MS with compound 48/80. In addition, blocking the histamine H2 receptor restored neutrophil migration, enhanced CXCR2 expression, decreased bacteremia, and improved sepsis survival in alloxan-induced diabetic and spontaneous NOD mice. Finally, diabetic W/W(v) mice had neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity, increased CXCR2 expression, and reduced bacteremia compared with diabetic WB/B6 mice. These results demonstrate that histamine released by MCs reduces diabetic host resistance to septic peritonitis in mice.The Journal of Immunology 07/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
Article: Perioperative Organ Injury.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that a surgical procedure may have been performed for the appropriate indication and in a technically perfect manner, patients are threatened by perioperative organ injury. For example, stroke, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or acute gut injury are among the most common causes for morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the current review, the authors discuss the pathogenesis of perioperative organ injury, and provide select examples for novel treatment concepts that have emerged over the past decade. Indeed, the authors are of the opinion that research to provide mechanistic insight into acute organ injury and identification of novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of perioperative organ injury represent the most important opportunity to improve outcomes of anesthesia and surgery.Anesthesiology 10/2013; · 6.17 Impact Factor