An intraneural ganglion cyst causing unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy.
ABSTRACT Intracranial ganglion cysts are rare. We report a patient with a rare unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an intraneural ganglion cyst. To our knowledge, there are only four reports of ganglion/synovial cysts causing unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. Our aim is to present the fifth report, and to compare our findings with the others.
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ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome contains six copies of insertion element IS1 at loci is1A-is1F. We determined their nucleotide (nt) sequences and found that they were classified into four types. Two copies of IS1 which flank a chromosomal segment containing the argF gene (IS1B and IS1C) have identical nt sequences. Another identical pair are IS1A and IS1E. Comparison of their nt sequences with the IS1 in plasmid R100 revealed seven nt mismatches for IS1A (or IS1E), two for IS1B (or IS1C), four for IS1D, and 75 for IS1F. The fact that the IS1s flanking the argF segment are identical supports the idea that the segment, together with the particular pair of IS1s, has constituted a composite transposon and transposed after genetic transfer from another bacterial species into E. coli K-12. Duplicated sequences were not observed in the regions flanking each of four copies of IS1, indicating that rearrangements have occurred in these chromosomal regions after IS1 elements had been inserted into several target sites. The four types of IS1 present in the E. coli K-12 chromosome were essentially similar to IS1s in plasmid R100 and in the chromosomes of Shigella strains. This and the above results suggest that they have been transferred horizontally from other Enterobacteriaceae, including Shigella, into E. coli K-12.Gene 03/1991; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli harbouring genes that increase mutation rates are known to have an evolutionary advantage in chemostat competition over otherwise isogeneic strains with lower mutation rates. This advantage is frequency-dependent, the mutator strain being favoured only above a starting ratio of approximately 5 x 10(-5), and it results from the fact that the necessary beneficial mutations cannot be generated in a mutator population below a certain size. Here we consider the possibility that the mutagenic properties of transposable elements confer an advantage in the same manner as mutator genes. A previous report has shown that the transposon Tn5 increases the fitness of E. coli in chemostats, although the reason for this effect has not been established. Our results show that the transposon Tn10 also confers an advantage in chemostats. In addition, we find that (1) this advantage, like that associated with mutator genes, is frequency-dependent, (2) whenever the Tn10 strains win, a segment of Tn10, probably its IS10 sequences, has undergone transposition to a new site, (3) the new insertions converge into a site contained within a 3.2 kilobase (kb) PvuII fragment of the genome, and (4) no transpositions are detected when the Tn10 population loses. We conclude that Tn10 confers an advantage by increasing the mutation rate of the host bacterium.Nature 01/1983; 303(5918):633-5. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- Limnology and Oceanography - LIMNOL OCEANOGR. 01/1958; 3(2):181-191.