Rising incidence and demographics of hepatocellular carcinoma in the USA: what does it mean?

University of Massachusetts Medical School, MA, USA.
Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 06/2011; 5(3):365-70. DOI: 10.1586/egh.11.20
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in the USA. Traditional factors, such as hepatitis C and hepatitis B, along with new emerging trends suggest that the incidence is not only increasing, but is also likely to be under-represented in the current literature. Emerging knowledge of its incidence and epidemiology reflects an increased incidence in younger patients and certain ethnic groups. Without a clear treatment algorithm for this complex cancer, therapy and its utilization remain unclear.

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    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 01/2012; 61(4):1-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Many of the 2.7-3.9 million persons living with HCV infection are unaware they are infected and do not receive care (e.g., education, counseling, and medical monitoring) and treatment. CDC estimates that although persons born during 1945-1965 comprise an estimated 27% of the population, they account for approximately three fourths of all HCV infections in the United States, 73% of HCV-associated mortality, and are at greatest risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and other HCV-related liver disease. With the advent of new therapies that can halt disease progression and provide a virologic cure (i.e., sustained viral clearance following completion of treatment) in most persons, targeted testing and linkage to care for infected persons in this birth cohort is expected to reduce HCV-related morbidity and mortality. CDC is augmenting previous recommendations for HCV testing (CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-19]) to recommend one-time testing without prior ascertainment of HCV risk for persons born during 1945-1965, a population with a disproportionately high prevalence of HCV infection and related disease. Persons identified as having HCV infection should receive a brief screening for alcohol use and intervention as clinically indicated, followed by referral to appropriate care for HCV infection and related conditions. These recommendations do not replace previous guidelines for HCV testing that are based on known risk factors and clinical indications. Rather, they define an additional target population for testing: persons born during 1945-1965. CDC developed these recommendations with the assistance of a work group representing diverse expertise and perspectives. The recommendations are informed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework, an approach that provides guidance and tools to define the research questions, conduct the systematic review, assess the overall quality of the evidence, and determine strength of the recommendations. This report is intended to serve as a resource for health-care professionals, public health officials, and organizations involved in the development, implementation, and evaluation of prevention and clinical services. These recommendations will be reviewed every 5 years and updated to include advances in the published evidence.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 08/2012; 61(RR-4):1-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), which regulates cellular proliferation and the acid-base balance, is known as prognostic factor in various types of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical implications of CA9 expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for CA9 was performed on tissue microarrays of hepatocellular carcinoma and paired non-neoplastic liver tissue from a training cohort of 838 patients and a validation cohort of 225 patients. Membranous staining in more than 5 % of the tumor cells was considered to indicate CA9 positivity. The prognostic value of CA9 expression was statistically evaluated. In the training cohort, CA9 positivity (181 cases, 21.5 %) was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (OS; p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS; p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, CA9 positivity was independently associated with reduced OS (p = 0.023), but not significantly associated with RFS (p = 0.384). These results were validated in an additional cohort (CA9 positivity in 35 cases, 15.6 %; OS, p = 0.015; RFS, p = 0.979). Pooled cohort analysis showed that this predictor was independently associated with higher mortality (OS; p < 0.001). These data indicate that CA9 expression is a poor prognostic factor in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00428-014-1709-0 · 2.56 Impact Factor