Histone deacetylase inhibition redistributes topoisomerase IIb from heterochromatin to euchromatin

Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Nucleus (Austin, Texas) (Impact Factor: 3.15). 01/2011; 2(1):61-71. DOI: 10.4161/nucl.2.1.14194
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The genome is organized into large scale structures in the interphase nucleus. Pericentromeric heterochromatin represents one such compartment characterized by histones H3 and H4 tri-methylated at K9 and K20 respectively and with a correspondingly low level of histone acetylation. HP1 proteins are concentrated in pericentric heterochromatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) promote hyperacetylation of heterochromatic nucleosomes and the dispersal of HP1 proteins. We observed that in mouse cells, which contain prominent heterochromatin, DNA topoisomerase IIβ (topoIIβ) is also concentrated in heterochromatic regions. Similarly, a detergent-resistant fraction of topoIIβ is associated with heterochromatin in human cell lines. Treatment with TSA displaced topoIIβ from the heterochromatin with similar kinetics to the displacement of HP1β. Topoisomerase II is the cellular target for a number of clinically important cytotoxic anti-cancer agents known collectively as topoisomerase poisons, and it has been previously reported that histone deacetylase inhibitors can sensitize cells to these drugs. While topoIIα appears to be the major target for most topoisomerase poisons, histone deacetylase-mediated potentiation of these drugs is dependent on topoIIβ. We find that while prior treatment with TSA did not increase the quantity of etoposide-mediated topoIIβ-DNA covalent complexes, it did result in a shift in their distribution from a largely heterochromatin-associated to a pannuclear pattern. We suggest that this redistribution of topoIIβ converts this isoform of topoII to a effective relevant target for topoisomerase poisons.

  • Source
    • "The same immunoprecipitates and in vitro incubation conditions did not decrease the topoisomerase IIb complexes, in fact the immunofluorescent signal increased. This may be due to increased accessibility to the anti-topoisomerase IIb antisera following detergent and salt treatment of heterochromatin (Cowell et al., 2011b). Etoposide stabilised topoisomerase II adducts were also removed from genomic DNA in vitro by recombinant MRE11, 49% of the topoisomerase IIa adducts were removed (P.0.0001), but only 7% of the topoisomerase IIb complexes (p50.0302). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topoisomerase II creates a double-strand break intermediate with topoisomerase covalently coupled to the DNA via a 5'-phosphotyrosyl bond. These intermediate complexes can become cytotoxic protein-DNA adducts and DSB repair at these lesions requires removal of topoisomerase II. To analyse removal of topoisomerase II from genomic DNA we adapted the trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining assay. Recombinant MRE11 from 2 sources removed topoisomerase IIα from genomic DNA in vitro, as did MRE11 immunoprecipitates isolated from A-TLD or K562 cells. Basal topoisomerase II complex levels were very high in A-TLD cells lacking full-length wild type MRE11, suggesting that MRE11 facilitates the processing of topoisomerase complexes that arise as part of normal cellular metabolism. In K562 cells inhibition of MRE11, PARP or replication increased topoisomerase IIα and β complex levels formed in the absence of an anti-topoisomerase II drug.
    Biology Open 09/2012; 1(9):863-73. DOI:10.1242/bio.20121834 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bromodomain is a highly conserved motif of 110 amino acids that is bundled into four anti-parallel α-helices and found in proteins that interact with chromatin, such as transcription factors, histone acetylases and nucleosome remodelling complexes. Bromodomain proteins are chromatin 'readers'; they recruit chromatin-regulating enzymes, including 'writers' and 'erasers' of histone modification, to target promoters and to regulate gene expression. Conventional wisdom held that complexes involved in chromatin dynamics are not 'druggable' targets. However, small molecules that inhibit bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins have been described. We examine these developments and discuss the implications for small molecule epigenetic targeting of chromatin networks in cancer.
    Nature Reviews Cancer 06/2012; 12(7):465-77. DOI:10.1038/nrc3256 · 29.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a major role in maintaining latency and is critical for the perpetual segregation of viral episomes to the progeny nuclei of newly divided cells. LANA binds to KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA and tethers the viral episomes to host chromosomes through the association of chromatin-bound cellular proteins. TR elements serve as potential origin sites of KSHV replication and have been shown to play important roles in latent DNA replication and transcription of adjacent genes. Affinity chromatography and proteomics analysis using KSHV TR DNA and the LANA binding site as the affinity column identified topoisomerase IIβ (TopoIIβ) as a LANA-interacting protein. Here, we show that TopoIIβ forms complexes with LANA that colocalize as punctuate bodies in the nucleus of KSHV-infected cells. The specific TopoIIβ binding region of LANA has been identified to its N terminus and the first 32 amino acid residues containing the nucleosome-binding region crucial for binding. Moreover, this region could also act as a dominant negative to disrupt association of TopoIIβ with LANA. TopoIIβ plays an important role in LANA-dependent latent DNA replication, as addition of ellipticine, a selective inhibitor of TopoII, negatively regulated replication mediated by the TR. DNA break labeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using biotin-16-dUTP and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase showed that TopoIIβ mediates a transient DNA break on viral DNA. These studies confirm that LANA recruits TopoIIβ at the origins of latent replication to unwind the DNA for replication.
    Journal of Virology 07/2012; 86(18):9983-94. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00839-12 · 4.65 Impact Factor
Show more