A rapid quantitative real-time PCR-based DNA quantification assay coupled with species--assignment capabilities for two hybridizing Macaca species.
ABSTRACT Regional populations of rhesus and long-tailed macaques exhibit fundamental differences in mitochondrial DNA, short tandem repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism variation between mainland and insular Southeast Asian populations. Some studies have revealed genetic admixture between these species due to natural hybridization and human-assisted intercrosses. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to efficiently determine the species of origin of a macaque biological sample, and to quantify the species-specific template DNA. Prior knowledge of species identity and DNA concentrations are crucial for maintaining cost-effective methods and accurate DNA analysis. DNA from 109 regionally representative rhesus and long-tailed macaques was qPCR amplified to determine the species and template quantities. Of the 19 Vietnamese long-tailed macaques, 3 samples were discovered to be hybrids.
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ABSTRACT: Macaques are commonly used in biomedical research as animal models of human disease. The ABO phenotype of donors and recipients plays an important role in the success of transplantation and stem cell research of both human and macaque tissue. Traditional serological methods for ABO phenotyping can be time consuming, provide ambiguous results and/or require tissue that is unavailable or unsuitable. We developed a novel method to detect the A, B, and AB phenotypes of macaques using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This method enables the simple and rapid screening of these phenotypes in macaques without the need for fresh blood or saliva. This study reports the distribution of the A, B, and AB phenotypes of captive cynomolgus macaques that, while regionally variable, closely resembles that of rhesus macaques. Blood group B, as in rhesus macaques, predominates in cynomolgus macaques and its frequency distribution leads to a probability of major incompatibility of 41%. No silencing mutations have been identified in exon 6 or 7 in macaques that could be responsible for the O phenotype, that, although rare, have been reported. The excess homozygosity of rhesus and cynomolgus macaque genotypes in this study, that assumes the absence of the O allele, suggests the possibility of some mechanism preventing the expression of the A and B transferases.Tissue Antigens 08/2012; 80(4):363-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor