The impact of atypical antipsychotic use on obstructive sleep apnea: a pilot study and literature review.
ABSTRACT Limited evidence links atypical antipsychotics (AAs) use to sleep related respiratory dysfunction and greater severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present paper reviews the published evidence and examines the impact of AA use on the presence and severity of OSA among subjects with clinically suspected OSA after adjusting for several confounds.
Archives of the University of Iowa Sleep Laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were searched for patients using AAs at the time of diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG). PSG data of the 84 AA users with heterogeneous psychiatric disorders (of these 20 diagnosed only with depression) were subsequently compared to PSG data of two randomly selected, non-AA user groups from the same patient pool: (i) 200 subjects with a depressive disorder as the only psychiatric diagnosis, and (ii) 331 mentally healthy controls. PSG data were analyzed adjusting for known demographic, medical, and psychiatric risk factors for OSA.
Prevalence and severity of OSA did not differ significantly across three groups. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and neck circumference (NC) independently predicted OSA. Odds ratio for OSA in the subset of AA users carrying the diagnosis of depression (n=20) compared with subjects without mental illness was 4.53 (p<.05). By contrast, AA users without depression or those with multiple psychiatric diagnoses including depression did not show a statistically significantly elevated OSA risk.
AA use in subjects with depression appears to increase the risk of OSA after controlling for known predisposing factors.
- The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2012; 73(3):307-9. DOI:10.4088/JCP.11com07079 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed.Chest 06/2012; 141(6):1601-10. DOI:10.1378/chest.11-2214 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Military deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq have been associated with elevated prevalence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among combat veterans. The diagnosis and management of PTSD when a comorbid TBI may also exist presents a challenge to interdisciplinary care teams at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and civilian medical facilities, particularly when the patient reports a history of blast exposure. Treatment recommendations from VA and Department of Defense's (DOD) recently updated VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress are considered from the perspective of simultaneously managing comorbid TBI.The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 07/2012; 49(5):789-812. DOI:10.1176/appi.focus.11.3.396 · 1.69 Impact Factor