Bi-modal dose-dependent cardiac response to tetrahydrobiopterin in pressure-overload induced hypertrophy and heart failure.
ABSTRACT The exogenous administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been shown to reduce left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction in mice with pre-established heart disease induced by pressure-overload. In this setting, BH4 re-coupled endothelial NOS (eNOS), with subsequent reduction of NOS-dependent oxidative stress and reversal of maladaptive remodeling. However, recent studies suggest the effective BH4 dosing may be narrower than previously thought, potentially due to its oxidation upon oral consumption. Accordingly, we assessed the dose response of daily oral synthetic sapropterin dihydrochloride (6-R-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, 6R-BH4) on pre-established pressure-overload cardiac disease. Mice (n=64) were administered 0-400mg/kg/d BH4 by ingesting small pre-made pellets (consumed over 15-30 min). In a dose range of 36-200mg/kg/d, 6R-BH4 suppressed cardiac chamber remodeling, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress with pressure-overload. However, at both lower and higher doses, BH4 had less or no ameliorative effects. The effective doses correlated with a higher myocardial BH4/BH2 ratio. However, BH2 rose linearly with dose, and at the 400mg/kg/d, this lowered the BH4/BH2 ratio back toward control. These results expose a potential limitation for the clinical use of BH4, as variability of cellular redox and perhaps heart disease could produce a variable therapeutic window among individuals. This article is part of a special issue entitled ''Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.''
Article: Cardiomyocyte GATA4 functions as a stress-responsive regulator of angiogenesis in the murine heart.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac gene expression, modulating cardiomyocyte differentiation and adaptive responses of the adult heart. We report what we believe to be a novel function for GATA4 in murine cardiomyocytes as a nodal regulator of cardiac angiogenesis. Conditional overexpression of GATA4 within adult cardiomyocytes increased myocardial capillary and small conducting vessel densities and increased coronary flow reserve and perfusion-dependent cardiac contractility. Coculture of HUVECs with either GATA4-expressing cardiomyocytes or with myocytes expressing a dominant-negative form of GATA4 enhanced or reduced HUVEC tube formation, respectively. Expression of GATA4 in skeletal muscle by adenoviral gene transfer enhanced capillary densities and hindlimb perfusion following femoral artery ablation. Deletion of Gata4 specifically from cardiomyocytes reduced myocardial capillary density and prevented pressure overload-augmented angiogenesis in vivo. GATA4 induced the angiogenic factor VEGF-A, directly binding the Vegf-A promoter and enhancing transcription. GATA4-overexpressing mice showed increased levels of cardiac VEGF-A, while Gata4-deleted mice demonstrated decreased VEGF-A levels. The induction of HUVEC tube formation in GATA4-overexpressing cocultured myocytes was blocked with a VEGF receptor antagonist. Pressure overload-induced dysfunction in Gata4-deleted hearts was partially rescued by adenoviral gene delivery of VEGF and angiopoietin-1. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate [corrected] a previously unrecognized function for GATA4 as a regulator of cardiac angiogenesis through a nonhypoxic, load, and/or disease-responsive mechanism.Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/2007; 117(11):3198-210. · 15.39 Impact Factor