Pediatric Parenting Stress and Its Relation to Depressive Symptoms and Fear of Hypoglycemia in Parents of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Division of Behavioral Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160-7330, USA.
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings (Impact Factor: 1.49). 06/2011; 18(4):345-52. DOI: 10.1007/s10880-011-9256-1
Source: PubMed


Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) maintain full responsibility for their child's daily diabetes self-care and thus may be vulnerable to experiencing parenting stress. This study examined several psychological correlates of pediatric parenting stress in parents of young children with T1DM. Parents of 39 young children with T1DM (ages 2-7 years) completed measures of pediatric parenting stress, mealtime behavior problems, depressive symptoms, and fear of hypoglycemia. For parents of young children, higher stress frequency and difficulty were associated with higher parental depressive symptoms and fear. Regression analyses identified that 58% of the variance in stress frequency was associated with parental depressive symptoms. For stress difficulty, 68% of the variance was associated with parental depressive symptoms and fear. Pediatric parenting stress is common in parents of young children with T1DM. Stress and the psychological correlates measured in this study are amenable to intervention and should be regularly assessed in parents of young children with T1DM.

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Available from: Laura B Smith, Jul 11, 2014
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    • "Moreover, an increased level of stress is detected in parents of autistic children in proportion to the severity of the condition [11], of children with diabetes [12], or of children with asthma [13]. Given that having children with diseases such as those mentioned above can generate parenting stress, we may assume that also having children with epilepsy, characterized by unpredictable crisis onset, can cause stress related to treatment concerns in their parents. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to measure the amount of stress in parents of children with epilepsy and to determine whether and how parenting stress is linked to behavioral symptoms of the children. Parenting stress was measured with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and behavioral symptoms with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data obtained from 26 parents of children with epilepsy were compared with those obtained from 31 parents of healthy children. Children with epilepsy obtained higher scores in all the subscales of PSI and in almost all the subscales of CBCL compared with healthy children. Epilepsy caused a high level of parenting stress and of problematic behaviors since the behavioral symptoms predicting the degree of parenting stress significantly differed between healthy children and children with epilepsy. Therefore, parents of children with epilepsy should be offered psychological support to cope with parenting stress and to improve the relationship with their children.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 10/2013; 29(1):222-7. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.07.020 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Parenting a child or adolescent with T1DM involves the same hardships and reasons for rejoicing as parenting other children and adolescents. However, in addition, there is the disease, which complicates things from time to time with varying intensity and affects all members of the family [26], [27], [28], [29], [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about parents’ views on the use of online resources for information, education and support regarding childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Considering the rapidly evolving new communication practices, parents’ perspectives need to be explored. The main purpose of this paper was to explore parents’ perceptions of their information-seeking, Internet use, and social networking online. This applied to their everyday life, including the contexts of T1DM and contact with peers. A second aim was to identify implications for future development of Internet use in this respect. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven parents of 24 young persons aged 10–17 with T1DM participated in eight focus group interviews during their regular visits to a county hospital. Focus group discussions were video/audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Self-reported demographic and medical information was also collected. A main theme was Finding things out, including two sub-themes, Trust and Suitability. The latter were key factors affecting parents’ perceptions of online resources. Parents’ choice of information source was related to the situation, previous experiences and knowledge about sources and, most importantly, the level of trust in the source. A constantly present background theme was Life situation, including two sub-themes, Roles and functions and Emotions and needs. Parents’ information-seeking regarding T1DM varied greatly, and was closely associated with their life situation, the adolescents development phases and the disease trajectory. Conclusions/Significance Health practitioners and system developers need to focus on creating trust and suitability for users’ needs. They should understand the children’s diverse needs, which depend on their life situation, on the children’s development, and on the disease trajectory. To enhance trust in online health information and support services, the participation of local practitioners is crucial.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62096. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062096 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Particularly parents of younger children perceive themselves to be excessively burdened [11,19,20]. After one year of diabetes duration a positive association between parenting stress and parental depressive symptoms was described by Patton and colleagues [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To assess initial efficacy and feasibility of a structured behavioural group training (DELFIN) for parents of children with diabetes type 1, in order to reduce parenting stress and to improve parenting skills. Methods A randomized controlled study was conducted between July 2008 and September 2010, at a children’s hospital in Hannover with parents of children with type 1 diabetes (2–10 yrs) (intervention group n = 37; control group n = 28). Parenting skills, parents’ psychological burden, children’s behavioural difficulties and quality of metabolic control were assessed before, 3 months after and 12 months after participating in the training program. Results In the intervention group parenting behaviour in conflict situations improved significantly after 3 months (Z = −3.28; p ≤ 0.001). It remained stable over 12 months (Z = −2.94; p ≤ 0.01). Depression and anxiety scores of parents decreased (Z = −1.93; p ≤ .05; Z = −2.02; p ≤ .05). Even though the outcome in the intervention group was more positive, the differences between both study arms failed to reach statistical significance. Unexpectedly parenting behaviour in the control group improved also (Z = −2.45; p ≤ .05). Anxiety as well as stress scores decreased in this group (Z = −2.02; p ≤ .05 and Z = −2.11; p ≤ .05). In both groups the initial metabolic control was good and without significant differences (A1c 7.2±0.8% vs. 7.1±0.4%; p > 0.5). It remained stable in the DELFIN group (A1c 7.1±0.8%; p > 0.5), but it increased slightly in controls (A1c 7.3±0.5%; Z = −2.79; p = .005). Conclusions This study has brought first evidence for the efficacy and feasibility of the program. A multicentre study with a larger sample is necessary to confirm these first results.
    BMC Pediatrics 09/2012; 12(1):152. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-12-152 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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