Impact of Simulation-Based Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Training in the Simulation Laboratory and Clinical Environment
ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a high-risk, complex therapy. Opportunities to develop teamwork skills and expertise to mitigate risks are few. Our objective was to assess whether simulation would improve technical and nontechnical skills in dealing with ECMO circuit emergencies and allow transfer of skills from the simulated setting to clinical environment.
Subjects were ECMO circuit providers who performed scenarios utilizing an infant simulator and functional ECMO circuit, followed immediately by video-assisted debriefings. Within the simulation laboratory, outcomes were timed responses, percentage of correct actions, teamwork, safety knowledge, and attitudes. Identification of latent safety threats (LSTs) was the focus of debriefings. Within the clinical setting, translation of learned skills was assessed by measuring circuit readiness and compliance with a cannulation initiation checklist.
Nineteen subjects performed 96 simulations during enrollment. In the laboratory, there was no improvement in timed responses or percent correct actions. Teamwork (P = 0.001), knowledge (P = 0.033), and attitudes (P = 0.001) all improved compared with baseline. Debriefing identified 99 LSTs. Clinically, 26 cannulations occurred during enrollment. Median time from blood available to circuit readiness was 17 minutes (range, 5-95), with no improvement during the study. Compliance with the initiation checklist improved compared with prestudy baseline (P < 0.0001).
Simulation-based training is an effective method to improve safety knowledge, attitudes, and teamwork surrounding ECMO emergencies. On-going training is feasible and allows identification of LSTs. Further work is needed to assess translation of learned skills and behaviors into the clinical environment.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: American Heart Association guidelines recommend timely extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pediatric cardiac arrest refractory to conventional resuscitation. Traditional cannulation training relies on the apprenticeship model. We hypothesized that a simulation-based ECM cannulation curriculum featuring a novel integrated skills trainer would improve ECMO cannulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance by cardiothoracic surgery trainees. Methods: An embedded surgical neck cannulation trainer, designed in collaboration with expert surgeons, formed the focus for a simulation-based cannulation curriculum. The course included a didactic presentation and 2 neck cannulations during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with video-assisted expert feedback with a further cannulation at 3 months. Primary outcome was time to cannulation on the trainer. Secondary outcomes were performance on a validated Global Rating Scale (GRS) of surgical technique and a novel Composite ECM Cannulation Score (CECS). Results: Ten cardiothoracic surgery trainees participated. The trainer was rated as authentic, and sessions was rated as highly useful. Median time to cannulation decreased between cannulation 1 and 2 (15 minutes 24 seconds vs. 12 minutes 15 seconds, P=0.002). Improvement was sustained at 3 months (13 minutes 36 seconds, P = 0.157 vs. attempt 2). Likewise, GRS increased significantly at attempt 2 versus 1 (77% vs. 62%, P = 0.003) as did CECS (88% vs. 52%, P = 0.002). No deterioration in GRS or CECS was measured at 3 months. Conclusions: Cardiothoracic surgery trainees found a contextualized ECM cannulotion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation cannulation curriculum to be highly useful and demonstrated sustained improvement in time to cannulation, CECS, and GRS. Further work will focus on determining the clinical impact of this training and defining the optimal interval and number of training sessions.Simulation in healthcare: journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 04/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1097/SIH.0b013e31828b4179 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In situ simulation training is a team-based training technique conducted on actual patient care units using equipment and resources from that unit, and involving actual members of the healthcare team. We describe our experience with in situ simulation training in a major children's medical centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In situ simulations were conducted using standardised scenarios approximately twice per month on inpatient hospital units on a rotating basis. Simulations were scheduled so that each unit participated in at least two in situ simulations per year. Simulations were conducted on a revolving schedule alternating on the day and night shifts and were unannounced. Scenarios were preselected to maximise the educational experience, and frequently involved clinical deterioration to cardiopulmonary arrest. RESULTS: We performed 64 of the scheduled 112 (57%) in situ simulations on all shifts and all units over 21 months. We identified 134 latent safety threats and knowledge gaps during these in situ simulations, which we categorised as medication, equipment, and/or resource/system threats. Identification of these errors resulted in modification of systems to reduce the risk of error. In situ simulations also provided a method to reinforce teamwork behaviours, such as the use of assertive statements, role clarity, performance of frequent updating, development of a shared mental model, performance of independent double checks of high-risk medicines, and overcoming authority gradients between team members. Participants stated that the training programme was effective and did not disrupt patient care. CONCLUSIONS: In situ simulations can identify latent safety threats, identify knowledge gaps, and reinforce teamwork behaviours when used as part of an organisation-wide safety programme.BMJ quality & safety 03/2013; 22(6). DOI:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-000931 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is stressful, especially for inexperienced extracorporeal life support providers. The main objective of this study was to create a novel, reusable mannequin for high-fidelity simulation of ECMO initiation. We modified a Laerdal neonatal mannequin (SimNewB; Stavanger, Norway) so that it could be used to simulate an ECMO initiation. A simulation of a neonatal patient suffering from meconium aspiration was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit, and participants included new extracorporeal life support specialists in addition to the composition of the clinical ECMO team. A total of 17 individuals participated in the neonatal ECMO initiation simulation. Questionnaire results showed that 88% of participants felt better prepared to assist in an ECMO initiation after the simulation. All participants (100%) agreed that the modified mannequin and the environment were realistic and that this simulation helps teamwork and communication in future initiations of ECMO. Simulation can be used for the prevention, identification, and reduction of anxiety-related crisis situations that novice providers may infrequently encounter during routine clinical use of mechanical circulatory support. Use of a reusable, high-fidelity mannequin may be beneficial for effective team training of complex pediatric ECMO-related procedures.Advances in Neonatal Care 04/2014; 14(2):103-9. DOI:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000054