Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury

Southampton University Hospital, NHS Trust, Southampton, UK.
Postgraduate medical journal (Impact Factor: 1.45). 06/2011; 87(1031):612-22. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2011.118398
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening respiratory failure due to lung injury from a variety of precipitants. Pathologically ARDS is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar capillary leakage, and protein rich pulmonary oedema leading to the clinical manifestation of poor lung compliance, severe hypoxaemia, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Several aetiological factors associated with the development of ARDS are identified with sepsis, pneumonia, and trauma with multiple transfusions accounting for most cases. Despite the absence of a robust diagnostic definition, extensive epidemiological investigations suggest ARDS remains a significant health burden with substantial morbidity and mortality. Improvements in outcome following ARDS over the past decade are in part due to improved strategies of mechanical ventilation and advanced support of other failing organs. Optimal treatment involves judicious fluid management, protective lung ventilation with low tidal volumes and moderate positive end expiratory pressure, multi-organ support, and treatment where possible of the underlying cause. Moreover, advances in general supportive measures such as appropriate antimicrobial therapy, early enteral nutrition, prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism and gastrointestinal ulceration are likely contributory reasons for the improved outcomes. Although therapies such as corticosteroids, nitric oxide, prostacyclins, exogenous surfactants, ketoconazole and antioxidants have shown promising clinical effects in animal models, these have failed to translate positively in human studies. Most recently, clinical trials with β2 agonists aiding alveolar fluid clearance and immunonutrition with omega-3 fatty acids have also provided disappointing results. Despite these negative studies, mortality seems to be in decline due to advances in overall patient care. Future directions of research are likely to concentrate on identifying potential biomarkers or genetic markers to facilitate diagnosis, with phenotyping of patients to predict outcome and treatment response. Pharmacotherapies remain experimental and recent advances in the modulation of inflammation and novel cellular based therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells, may reduce lung injury and facilitate repair.

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    • "Most patients progress to respiratory failure within 48 h after the onset of symptoms (Mortelliti and Manning, 2002). Nevertheless, variability in both pathology and patients may be responsible for contradictory results from various ARDS clinical trials, particularly in adult patients (Dushianthan et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells—epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 10/2014; 209. DOI:10.1016/j.resp.2014.10.006 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pneumonedema and pulmonary closure caused by diffuse alveolar-capillary membrane damage, which appears after the body suffers injuries such as severe infection, trauma, or shock [1]. The normal alveolar respiratory membrane is divided into six layers, which can be successively identified from the alveolar inner surface to the outer surface under an electron microscope: a liquid layer with alveolar surfactant, the alveolar epithelium, the epithelial basement membrane, the matrix layer between the alveoli and capillary, the capillary basement membrane and the capillary endothelial layer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disorder associated with reduced alveolar-capillary barrier function and increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is widely associated with all types of modulations of cytoskeleton rearrangement-dependent cellular morphology and function, such as adhesion, shrinkage, and permeability. The present studies were conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) increases the tight junction permeability in lung tissue associated with acute lung inflammation. After incubating A549 cells for 24 hours with different concentrations (0-100 ng/mL) of TNF-α, 0.1 to 8 ng/mL TNF-α exhibited no significant effect on cell viability compared with the 0 ng/mL TNF-α group (control group). However, 10 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL TNF-α dramatically inhibited the viability of A549 cells compared with the control group (*p<0.05). Monolayer cell permeability assay results indicated that A549 cells incubated with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 24 hours displayed significantly increased cell permeability (*p<0.05). Moreover, the inhibition of VASP expression increased the cell permeability (*p<0.05). Pretreating A549 cells with cobalt chloride (to mimic a hypoxia environment) increased protein expression level of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) (*p<0.05), whereas protein expression level of VASP decreased significantly (*p<0.05). In LPS-induced ALI mice, the concentrations of TNF-α in lung tissues and serum significantly increased at one hour, and the value reached a peak at four hours. Moreover, the Evans Blue absorption value of the mouse lung tissues reached a peak at four hours. The HIF-1α protein expression level in mouse lung tissues increased significantly at four hours and eight hours (**p<0.001), whereas the VASP protein expression level decreased significantly (**p<0.01). Taken together, our data demonstrate that HIF-1α acts downstream of TNF-α to inhibit VASP expression and to modulate the acute pulmonary inflammation process, and these molecules play an important role in the impairment of the alveolar-capillary barrier.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102967. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102967 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Except for an increased emphasis on low tidal volume ventilation and lung protective strategies, few therapeutic approaches have shown improvement in patient survival [3]–[5]. Oxygen administration and mechanical ventilation, the two main treatment regimens for ARDS, can accentuate lung injury [3], [6], [7]. While inflammation and loss of barrier function contribute to the progression of disease in these patients [8], [9], our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms associated with ventilator-associated lung injury is incomplete [10]–[14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome remains challenging partially because the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. While inflammation and loss of barrier function are associated with disease progression, our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms associated with ventilator-associated lung injury is incomplete. In this line of thinking, we recently showed that changes in the F-actin content and deformability of AECs lead to cell detachment with mechanical stretch. Elsewhere, we discovered that cytokine secretion and proliferation were regulated in part by the stretch-activated 2-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channel TREK-1 in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). As such, the aim of the current study was to determine whether TREK-1 regulated the mechanobiology of AECs through cytoskeletal remodeling and cell detachment. Using a TREK-1-deficient human AEC line (A549), we examined the cytoskeleton by confocal microscopy and quantified differences in the F-actin content. We used nano-indentation with an atomic force microscope to measure the deformability of cells and detachment assays to quantify the level of injury in our monolayers. We found a decrease in F-actin and an increase in deformability in TREK-1 deficient cells compared to control cells. Although total vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) levels remained unchanged, focal adhesions appeared to be less prominent and phosphorylation of FAK at the Tyr(925) residue was greater in TREK-1 deficient cells. TREK-1 deficient cells have less F-actin and are more deformable making them more resistant to stretch-induced injury.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89429. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089429 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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