Human lysozyme has fungicidal activity against nasal fungi
ABSTRACT The cationic antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is the most prevalent innate immune protein in nasal secretions but there is a paucity of research regarding its role in paranasal sinus disease. Lysozyme is generally regarded as an antibacterial agent; however, some data suggest activity toward yeast. This study was designed to determine if lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward fungi commonly identified in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or fungal sinusitis.
Using a colony-forming unit assay the fungicidal activity of lysozyme (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 micromolar; 0- to 7-hour treatment) was tested against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, the yeast Candida albicans, and other fungi commonly identified in mucin of patients with CRS. Fungi cultured directly from the mucin of two CRS patients were also tested to determine if they were resistant to the fungicidal activity of lysozyme.
The fungicidal effect of lysozyme was both concentration and time dependent. After 7-hour treatment lysozyme (5 micromolar) had >80% fungicidal activity against A. fumigatus, Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp., C. albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. The fungicidal activity of lysozyme toward Alternaria alternata could not be determined. Lysozyme was also fungicidal toward the clinical isolates A. fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus cultured from the mucin of CRS patients.
Lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward many fungi commonly identified in patients with CRS, as well as clinical fungi isolates cultured from the mucin of CRS patients. Additional studies are required to determine the regulation of lysozyme in CRS.
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ABSTRACT: Lysozyme is an innate immune peptide with bactericidal and fungicidal activity (FA). Despite increased expression of lysozyme protein in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sinus mucosa, CRS patients experience repeated bacterial and/or fungal infections. Commercial sinus irrigation solutions are often used to provide symptomatic relief. However, one of the mechanisms of action of lysozyme involves ionic interactions with the microbial cell wall, which may be inhibited by ionic solutions such as commercial sinus irrigation solutions. Determine if the FA of lysozyme is reduced in the presence of solutions with increasing ionic strength and inhibited in the presence of commercial sinus irrigation solutions. Using an in vitro colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, the FA of lysozyme (5 μM) was tested against a fungi commonly isolated from CRS patients, Aspergillus fumigatus, in solutions of increasing ionic strength or commercial sinus irrigation solutions. FA was presented as percent of control. FA of lysozyme against A. fumigatus was 95% in a 21-mM ionic strength solution. However, with increasing ionic strength, FA decreased and was abolished in a 46-mM ionic strength solution. Commercial sinus irrigation solutions abolished the FA of lysozyme against A. fumigatus. The in vitro FA of lysozyme is dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. The use of sinus irrigation solutions should be further evaluated with regard to maintaining functional activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides involved in sinonasal innate immunity.American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 07/2012; 26(4):298-301. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3793 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proteinases and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are essential for expression of allergic inflammation and diseases such as asthma. A mechanism that links these inflammatory mediators is essential for explaining the fundamental basis of allergic disease but has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TLR4 is activated by airway proteinase activity to initiate both allergic airway disease and antifungal immunity. These outcomes were induced by proteinase cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen, yielding fibrinogen cleavage products that acted as TLR4 ligands on airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, allergic airway inflammation represents an antifungal defensive strategy that is driven by fibrinogen cleavage and TLR4 activation. These findings clarify the molecular basis of allergic disease and suggest new therapeutic strategies.Science 08/2013; 341(6147):792-6. DOI:10.1126/science.1240342 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The lysozymes are well known antimicrobial polypeptides exhibiting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their antibacterial potential is related to muramidase activity and non-enzymatic activity resembling the mode of action of cationic defense peptides. However, the mechanisms responsible for fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozyme are still not clear. In the present study, the anti-Candida albicans activity of Galleria mellonella lysozyme and anionic peptide 2 (AP2), defense factors constitutively present in the hemolymph, was examined. The lysozyme inhibited C. albicans growth in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease in the C. albicans survival rate caused by the lysozyme was accompanied by a considerable reduction of the fungus metabolic activity, as revealed by LIVE/DEAD staining. In contrast, although AP2 reduced C. albicans metabolic activity, it did not influence its survival rate. Our results suggest fungicidal action of G. mellonella lysozyme and fungistatic activity of AP2 toward C. albicans cells. In the presence of AP2, the anti-C. albicans activity of G. mellonella lysozyme increased. Moreover, when the fungus was incubated with both defense factors, true hyphae were observed besides pseudohyphae and yeast-like C. albicans cells. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the cells exposed to the lysozyme and/or AP2 revealed alterations in the cell surface topography and properties in comparison with the control cells. The results indicate synergistic action of G. mellonella AP2 and lysozyme toward C. albicans. The presence of both factors in the hemolymph of naive larvae suggests their important role in the early stages of immune response against fungi in G. mellonella.Peptides 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2014.01.012 · 2.61 Impact Factor