The cationic antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is the most prevalent innate immune protein in nasal secretions but there is a paucity of research regarding its role in paranasal sinus disease. Lysozyme is generally regarded as an antibacterial agent; however, some data suggest activity toward yeast. This study was designed to determine if lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward fungi commonly identified in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or fungal sinusitis.
Using a colony-forming unit assay the fungicidal activity of lysozyme (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 micromolar; 0- to 7-hour treatment) was tested against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, the yeast Candida albicans, and other fungi commonly identified in mucin of patients with CRS. Fungi cultured directly from the mucin of two CRS patients were also tested to determine if they were resistant to the fungicidal activity of lysozyme.
The fungicidal effect of lysozyme was both concentration and time dependent. After 7-hour treatment lysozyme (5 micromolar) had >80% fungicidal activity against A. fumigatus, Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp., C. albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. The fungicidal activity of lysozyme toward Alternaria alternata could not be determined. Lysozyme was also fungicidal toward the clinical isolates A. fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus cultured from the mucin of CRS patients.
Lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward many fungi commonly identified in patients with CRS, as well as clinical fungi isolates cultured from the mucin of CRS patients. Additional studies are required to determine the regulation of lysozyme in CRS.
"hLYZ functions as a bactericide by catalyzing the hydrolysis of b-1,4 glucosidic bond in mucopolysaccharides in the bacterial cell wall, directly in the case of Gram-positive bacteria and indirectly the via the effects of secretory immunoglobulin A and complement in gram-negative bacteria (Woods et al. 2011). Thus, this protein has been widely used for both medical and industrial purposes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A vector expressing human lysozyme (pBC1-hLYZ-GFP-Neo) was evaluated for gene and protein expression following liposome-mediated transformation of C-127 mouse mammary cancer cells. Cultures of G418-resistant clones were harvested 24-72 h after induction with prolactin, insulin and hydrocortisone. Target gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot and recombinant human lysozyme (rhLYZ) bacteriostatic activity was also evaluated. The hLYZ gene was correctly transcribed and translated in C-127 cells and hLYZ inhibited gram-positive bacterial growth, indicating the potential of this expression vector for development of a mammary gland bioreactor in goats. Guanzhong dairy goat skin fibroblasts transfected with pBC1-hLYZ-GFP-Neo were used to construct a goat embryo transgenically expressing rhLYZ by somatic nuclear transplantation with a blastocyst rate of 9.0 ± 2.8 %. These data establish the basis for cultivation of mastitis-resistant hLYZ transgenic goats.
"Lysozyme is a major component of nasal secretions and was always seen as an important antibacterial defense protein given its ability to break down bacterial cell wall. Woods and coworkers  now have shown that lysozyme can also play a role in the fight against fungi, as growth in cultures from multiple species, including Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Candida, is susceptible to lysozyme. This was also true for clinical isolates from CRS patients, showing that selection of fungi not responsive to lysozyme is not part of the pathological mechanism in CRS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. Aberrant responses to microorganisms have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Research has focused on the presence, detection, response to, and eradication of these potential threats. Main topics seem to center on the contribution of structural cells such as epithelium and fibroblasts, on the consequences of activation of pattern-recognition receptors, and on the role of antimicrobial agents. This research should be viewed not only in the light of a comparison between healthy and diseased individuals, but also in a comparison between patients who do or do not respond to treatment. New players that could play a role in the pathophysiology seem to surface at regular intervals, adding to our understanding (and the complexity) of the disease and opening new avenues that may help fight this incapacitating disease.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 04/2012; 12(2):120-6. DOI:10.1007/s11882-012-0249-4 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungal infections of the cornea are an important cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide, with contact lens wear being the main risk factor in the USA and other industrialized countries, and traumatic injury being the main risk factor in developing countries. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the host response to Aspergillus and Fusarium species in infected human corneal tissue and in mouse models of fungal keratitis.
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