Principles of unconventional myosin function and targeting.
ABSTRACT Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based motors implicated in diverse cellular processes. In recent years, much progress has been made in describing their biophysical properties, and headway has been made into analyzing their cellular functions. Here, we focus on the principles that guide in vivo motor function and targeting to specific cellular locations. Rather than describe each motor comprehensively, we outline the major themes that emerge from research across the superfamily and use specific examples to illustrate each. In presenting the data in this format, we seek to identify open questions in each field as well as to point out commonalities between them. To advance our understanding of myosins' roles in vivo, clearly we must identify their cellular cargoes and the protein complexes that regulate motor attachment to fully appreciate their functions on the cellular and developmental levels.
SourceAvailable from: Ruth Sommese[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myosin V and VI are antagonistic motors that cohabit membrane vesicles in cells. A systematic study of their collective function, however, is lacking and forms the focus of this study. We functionally reconstitute a two-dimensional actin-myosin interface using myosin V and VI precisely patterned on DNA nanostructures, in combination with a model keratocyte actin meshwork. While scaffolds display solely unidirectional movement, their directional flux is modulated by both actin architecture and the structural properties of the myosin lever arm. This directional flux can be finely-tuned by the relative number of myosin V and VI motors on each scaffold. Pairing computation with experimental observations suggests that the ratio of motor stall forces is a key determinant of the observed competitive outcomes. Overall, our study demonstrates an elegant mechanism for sorting of membrane cargo using equally matched antagonistic motors, simply by modulating the relative number of engagement sites for each motor type.eLife Sciences 03/2015; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.05472 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the mechanism of resistance to the fungicide phenamacril (JS399-19) in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, we sequenced and annotated the genome of the resistant strain YP-1 (generated by treating the F. graminearum reference strain PH-1 with phenamacril). Of 1.4 million total reads from an Illumina-based paired-end sequencing assay, 92.80% were aligned to the F. graminearum reference genome. Compared with strain PH-1, strain YP-1 contained 1,989 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that led to amino acid mutations in 132 genes. We sequenced 22 functional annotated genes of another F. graminearum sensitive strain (strain 2021) and corresponding resistant strains. The only mutation common to all of the resistant mutants occurred in the gene encoding myosin-5 (point mutations at codon 216, 217, 418, 420, or 786). To confirm whether the mutations in myosin-5 confer resistance to phenamacril, we exchanged the myosin-5 locus between the sensitive strain 2021 and the resistant strain Y2021A by homologous double exchange. The transformed mutants with a copy of the resistant fragment exhibited resistance to phenamacril, and the transformed mutant with a copy of the sensitive fragment exhibited sensitivity to phenamacril. These results indicate that mutations in myosin-5 confers resistance to phenamacril in F. graminearum.Scientific Reports 02/2015; 5:8248. DOI:10.1038/srep08248 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP). Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A). In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0122502. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122502 · 3.53 Impact Factor