A dual role for MYB60 in stomatal regulation and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under drought stress.
ABSTRACT In response to environmental challenges, plant cells activate several signaling pathways that trigger the expression of transcription factors. Arabidopsis MYB60 was reported to be involved in stomatal regulation under drought conditions. Here, two splice variants of the MYB60 gene are shown to play a crucial role in stomatal movement. This role was demonstrated by over-expressing each variant, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to water deficit stress. The MYB60 splice variants, despite the fact that one of which lacks the first two exons encoding the first MYB DNA binding domain, both localize to the nucleus and promote guard cell deflation in response to water deficit. Moreover, MYB60 expression is increased in response to a low level of ABA and decreased in response to high level of ABA. At initial stage of drought stress, the plant system may modulate the root growth behavior by regulating MYB60 expression, thus promotes root growth for increased water uptake. In contrast, severe drought stress inhibits the expression of the MYB60 gene, resulting in stomatal closure and root growth inhibition. Taken together, these data indicate that MYB60 plays a dual role in abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis through its involvement in stomatal regulation and root growth.
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ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis mutation, los2, impairs cold-responsive gene transcription, acquired freezing tolerance and plant resistance to chilling under certain conditions. LOS2 was isolated through positional cloning and shown to encode an enolase in the glycolytic pathway. In animal cells, enolase has also been known to function as a transcription factor that represses the expression of c-myc by binding to the c-myc gene promoter. LOS2 fused to green fluorescent protein is targeted to the nucleus as well as to the cytoplasm. LOS2/enolase protein can bind to the cis-element of the human c-myc gene promoter and to the gene promoter of STZ/ZAT10, a zinc finger transcriptional repressor from Arabidopsis. STZ/ZAT10 expression is induced rapidly and transiently by cold in the wild type, and this induction is stronger and more sustained in the los2 mutant. Furthermore, the expression of a RD29A-LUC reporter gene is repressed significantly by STZ/ZAT10 in transient expression assays in Arabidopsis leaves. Our results demonstrate that cold-responsive gene transcription in plants is controlled by a bi-functional enolase.The EMBO Journal 07/2002; 21(11):2692-702. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oligomer-based DNA Affymetrix GeneChips representing about one-third of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes were used to profile global gene expression in a single cell type, guard cells, identifying 1309 guard cell-expressed genes. Highly pure preparations of guard cells and mesophyll cells were isolated in the presence of transcription inhibitors that prevented induction of stress-inducible genes during cell isolation procedures. Guard cell expression profiles were compared with those of mesophyll cells, resulting in identification of 64 transcripts expressed preferentially in guard cells. Many large gene families and gene duplications are known to exist in the Arabidopsis genome, giving rise to redundancies that greatly hamper conventional genetic and functional genomic analyses. The presented genomic scale analysis identifies redundant expression of specific isoforms belonging to large gene families at the single cell level, which provides a powerful tool for functional genomic characterization of the many signaling pathways that function in guard cells. Reverse transcription-PCR of 29 genes confirmed the reliability of GeneChip results. Statistical analyses of promoter regions of abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated genes reveal an overrepresented ABA responsive motif, which is the known ABA response element. Interestingly, expression profiling reveals ABA modulation of many known guard cell ABA signaling components at the transcript level. We further identified a highly ABA-induced protein phosphatase 2C transcript, AtP2C-HA, in guard cells. A T-DNA disruption mutation in AtP2C-HA confers ABA-hypersensitive regulation of stomatal closing and seed germination. The presented data provide a basis for cell type-specific genomic scale analyses of gene function.The Plant Cell 04/2004; 16(3):596-615. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mode of abscisic acid (ABA) action, and its relations to drought adaptive responses in particular, has been a captivating area of plant hormone research for much over a decade. The hormone triggers stomatal closure to limit water loss through transpiration, as well as mobilizes a battery of genes that presumably serve to protect the cells from the ensuing oxidative damage in prolonged stress. The signaling network orchestrating these various responses is, however, highly complex. This review summarizes several significant advances made within the last few years. The biosynthetic pathway of the hormone is now almost completely elucidated, with the latest identification of the ABA4 gene encoding a neoxanthin synthase, which seems essential for de novo ABA biosynthesis during water stress. This leads to the interesting question on how ABA is then delivered to perception sites. In this respect, regulated transport has attracted renewed focus by the unexpected finding of a shoot-to-root translocation of ABA during drought response, and at the cellular level, by the identification of a beta-galactosidase that releases biologically active ABA from inactive ABA-glucose ester. Surprising candidate ABA receptors were also identified in the form of the Flowering Time Control Protein A (FCA) and the Chloroplastic Magnesium Protoporphyrin-IX Chelatase H subunit (CHLH) in chloroplast-nucleus communication, both of which have been shown to bind ABA in vitro. On the other hand, the protein(s) corresponding to the physiologically detectable cell-surface ABA receptor(s) is (are) still not known with certainty. Genetic and physiological studies based on the guard cell have reinforced the central importance of reversible phosphorylation in modulating rapid ABA responses. Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinases (SnRK), Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPK), Protein Phosphatases (PP) of the 2C and 2A classes figure as prominent regulators in this single-cell model. Identifying their direct in vivo targets of regulation, which may include H(+)-ATPases, ion channels, 14-3-3 proteins and transcription factors, will logically be the next major challenge. Emerging evidence also implicates ABA as a repressor of innate immune response, as hinted by the highly similar roster of genes elicited by certain pathogens and ABA. Undoubtedly, the most astonishing revelation is that ABA is not restricted to plants and mosses, but overwhelming evidence now indicates that it also exists in metazoans ranging from the most primitive to the most advance on the evolution scale (sponges to humans). In metazoans, ABA has healing properties, and plays protective roles against both environmental and pathogen related injuries. These cross-kingdom comparisons have shed light on the surprising ancient origin of ABA and its attendant mechanisms of signal transduction.Molecular plant 03/2008; 1(2):198-217. · 6.13 Impact Factor