Tin/polypyrrole composite anode using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose binder for lithium-ion batteries.
ABSTRACT A tin nanoparticle/polypyrrole (nano-Sn/PPy) composite was prepared by chemically reducing and coating Sn nanoparticles onto the PPy surface. The composite shows a much higher surface area than the pure nano-Sn reference sample, due to the porous higher surface area of PPy and the much smaller size of Sn in the nano-Sn/PPy composite than in the pure tin nanoparticle sample. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were also used as binders, and the electrochemical performance was investigated. The electrochemical results show that both the capacity retention and the rate capability are in the same order of nano-Sn/PPy-CMC > nano-Sn/PPy-PVDF > nano-Sn-CMC > nano-Sn-PVDF. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that CMC can prevent the formation of cracks in electrodes caused by the big volume changes during the charge-discharge process, and the PPy in the composite can provide a conducting matrix and alleviate the agglomeration of Sn nanoparticles. The present results indicate that the nano-Sn/PPy composite could be suitable for the next generation of anode materials with relatively good capacity retention and rate capability.
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ABSTRACT: The tributylphenyltin (TBPT)-encapsulated resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) sol was prepared inside the micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). This core-shell-type sol was polymerized and further carbonized to obtain nanosized Sn-encapsulated spherical hollow carbon. The size of spherical hollow carbon and Sn metal particles was controllable by changing the R/CTAB or TBPT/CTAB mole ratio, respectively. It is likely that, when tested as the anode in Li secondary batteries, the spherical hollow carbon acts as a barrier to prevent the aggregation of nanosized Sn particles and provides a void space for Sn metal particles to experience a volume change without a collapse of carbon shell, giving rise to a better cycle performance than that of pure Sn metal.Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2003; 125(19):5652-3. · 10.68 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 03/1997; 97(1):207-282. · 41.30 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 11/2004; 104(10):4271-301. · 41.30 Impact Factor