Effects of Varicocelectomy on Sperm DNA Fragmentation, Mitochondrial Function, Chromatin Condensation, and Apoptosis

Section of Endocrinology, Andrology, and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction, and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
Journal of Andrology (Impact Factor: 1.69). 06/2011; 33(3):389-96. DOI: 10.2164/jandrol.111.013433
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate conventional semen parameters (density, morphology, and progressive motility) and the flow-cytometric parameters of DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, and chromatin compactness in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Thirty men (26.5 ± 3.2 years old, range 20-32 years) with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and grade 3 left varicocele were selected (without other causes of male infertility). Each of them underwent sperm analysis and flow cytometric evaluation before and 4 months after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (SMV). After varicocelectomy, men had significantly higher sperm density, progressive motility, and normal forms compared with baseline. They also had a significantly lower percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial membrane potential. After SMV, they showed a significantly lower percentage of spermatozoa with phosphatidylserine externalization, an early sign of apoptosis. Significantly decreased percentages of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness and spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation were found after SMV compared with baseline. Subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy improves sperm function in oligoasthenoteratozoospermia secondary to grade 3 left varicocele. Improvements are seen in conventional parameters and biofunctional parameters not routinely evaluated.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To analyse the levels of an indirect marker of ROS-induced lipid peroxidation [i.e. malondialdehyde (MDA)] in both testes and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in the left testis after induction of varicocele and investigated the impact of micronised purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on these markers. Forty-nine adolescent (6-week-old) male Wistar rats were included in this study. The rats were divided into seven groups as follows:Group-1, control; Group-2, sham; Group-3, left varicocele-induced; Group-4, varicocele + varicocelectomy + MPFF-treated (for 4 weeks); Group-5, varicocele + MPFF-treated (for 8 weeks); Group-6, varicocele-induced and 4 weeks later, MPFF-treated (for 4 weeks); and Group-7, varicocele + varicocelectomy. MDA was measured in the tissues of both testes using the thiobarbituric acid reactivity method. The ELISA method was used for the quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the left testicular tissue. The levels of MDA were significantly higher in the varicocele group than in the other groups. The MDA levels in the left testicular tissues of Group-7 were significantly higher than those of Group 4 (P = 0.03). In the varicocele group, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels decreased, whereas the levels of TIMP-1 increased. The tissue levels of MMP-2 in Groups 4, 5 and 7 were significantly higher than those in Group 1 (P < 0.05).
    Andrologia 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/and.12091 · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito‑borne flavivirus, causes acute encephalitis and nervous damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that JEV induces apoptosis in infected cells. However, to date the mechanisms of JEV‑induced apoptosis are unclear. In order to identify the viral proteins associated with JEV‑induced apoptosis, pEGFP‑non‑structural protein 3 (NS3) 1‑619 (expressing the JEV NS3 intact protein, including the protease and helicase domains), pEGFP‑NS3 1‑180 (expressing the protease domain) and pEGFP‑NS3 163‑619 (expressing the helicase domain) were transfected into target cells to study cell death. Results demonstrate that the JEV NS3 intact protein and protease and helicase domains induce cell death. In addition, cell death was identified to be significantly higher in cells transfected with the NS3 protease domain compared with the intact protein and helicase domain. Caspase activation was also analyzed in the current study. NS3 intact protein and NS3 protease and helicase domains activated caspase‑9/‑3‑dependent and ‑independent pathways. However, caspase‑8 activity was not found to be significantly different in NS3‑transfected cells compared with control. In summary, the present study demonstrates that the NS3 helicase and protease domains of JEV activate caspase‑9/‑3‑dependent and ‑independent cascades and trigger cell death.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 01/2013; 7(3). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2013.1261 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anticancer effects of ceramide have been reported in many types of cancers but less in lung cancer. In this study, we used C2-ceramide to further investigate its possible anticancer effects and mechanisms on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H1299 cells. The result of cell proliferation in terms of trypan blue assay showed high dose of C2-ceramide inhibited cell survival after 24 h treatment. The flow cytometry-based assays indicated the effect of apoptosis, chromatin condensation, and G1 arrest in terms of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), DAPI, and PI stainings, respectively. Moreover, the decreased protein level of p-Akt, p-NFkappaB, survivin and cyclin A2 were detected by Western blot assay. Taken together, these results indicated the antiproliferative effect of C2-ceramide is majorly responsible for cell apoptosis in lung cancer H1299 cells.
    Cancer Cell International 01/2014; 14(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1475-2867-14-1 · 1.99 Impact Factor