Downregulation of Pdcd4 by mir-21 facilitates glioblastoma proliferation in vivo

Department of Pediatrics, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03755, USA.
Neuro-Oncology (Impact Factor: 5.29). 06/2011; 13(6):580-90. DOI: 10.1093/neuonc/nor033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play a critical role in developmental and physiological processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer. They function by regulating target gene expression post-transcriptionally. In this study, we examined the role of oncogenic mir-21 in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor. We have previously reported that mir-21 is expressed at higher levels in primary glioblastoma-tissue and glioblastoma-derived cell lines than in normal brain tissue. We demonstrate that downregulation of mir-21 in glioblastoma-derived cell lines results in increased expression of its target, programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a known tumor-suppressor gene. In addition, our data indicate that either downregulation of mir-21 or overexpression of its target, Pdcd4, in glioblastoma-derived cell lines leads to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in soft agar. Using a glioblastoma xenograft model in immune-deficient nude mice, we observe that glioblastoma-derived cell lines in which mir-21 levels are downregulated or Pdcd4 is over-expressed exhibit decreased tumor formation and growth. Significantly, tumors grow when the glioblastoma-derived cell lines are transfected with anti-mir-21 and siRNA to Pdcd4, confirming that the tumor growth is specifically regulated by Pdcd4. These critical in vivo findings demonstrate an important functional linkage between mir-21 and Pdcd4 and further elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which the known high level of mir-21 expression in glioblastoma can attribute to tumorigenesis--namely, inhibition of Pdcd4 and its tumor-suppressive functions.

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    • "GBM-derived cell lines treated with anti-miR-21 had reduced proliferation and also exhibited enhanced apoptosis, compared with untreated controls. In addition, cell lines in which miR-21 levels were inhibited displayed decreased anchorage-independent growth, whereas GBM-derived cell lines expressing PDCD4 showed increased apoptosis and diminished anchorage-independent growth [43]. miR-21 seems to regulate drug resistance in various cancers, and therefore the use of miR- 21 inhibitors may function as an effective approach for reversing drug resistance in canmiRNA expression profiles in pediatric glioblastoma multiforme 240 Am J Cancer Res 2015;5(1):231-242 cer cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Various signal transduction pathways seem to be involved in chemoresistance mechanism of glioblastomas (GBMs). miR-21 is an important oncogenic miRNA which modulates drug resistance of tumor cells. We analyzed the expression of 5 miRNAs, previously found to be dysregulated in high grade gliomas, in 9 pediatric (pGBM) and in 5 adult (aGBM) GBMs. miR-21 was over-expressed, with a significant difference between pGBMs and aGBMs represented by a 4 times lower degree of expression in the pediatric compared to the adult series (p = 0.001). Doxorubicin (Dox) seems to be an effective anti-glioma agent with high antitumor activity also against glioblastoma stem cells. We therefore evaluated the chemosensitivity to Dox in 3 GBM cell lines (A172, U87MG and T98G). Dox had a cytotoxic effect after 48 h of treatment in A172 and U87MG, while T98G cells were resistant. TUNEL assay verified that Dox induced apoptosis in A172 and U87MG but not in T98G. miR-21 showed a low basal expression in treated cells and was over-expressed in untreated cells. To validate the possible association of miR-21 with drug resistance of T98G cells, we transfected anti-miR-21 inhibitor into the cells. The expression level of miR-21 was significantly lower in T98G transfected cells (than in the parental control cells). Transfected cells showed a high apoptotic rate compared to control after Dox treatment by TUNEL assay, suggesting that combined Dox and miR-21 inhibitor therapy can sensitize GBM resistant cells to anthracyclines by enhancing apoptosis.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA transcripts that affect various cellular pathways by serving as regulators of gene expression at the translational and transcriptional level. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene transcription by binding to the promoter region or by interacting with other transcription factors. NRs can regulate miRNA expression either at the transcriptional level, or through posttranscriptional maturation by interacting with miRNA processing factors. This review will summarize recent advances in knowledge of the modulation of miRNA expression by NRs. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of miRNA expression may enable new therapeutic interventions that modulate miRNA activities through NR-mediated signaling.
    09/2011; 1(1):31. DOI:10.1186/2045-3701-1-31
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p<0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2011; 417(1):29-34. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.11.035 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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