HSP70 inhibition by the small-molecule 2-phenylethynesulfonamide impairs protein clearance pathways in tumor cells.
ABSTRACT The evolutionarily conserved stress-inducible HSP70 molecular chaperone plays a central role in maintaining protein quality control in response to various forms of stress. Constitutively elevated HSP70 expression is a characteristic of many tumor cells and contributes to their survival. We recently identified the small-molecule 2-phenylethyenesulfonamide (PES) as a novel HSP70 inhibitor. Here, we present evidence that PES-mediated inhibition of HSP70 family proteins in tumor cells results in an impairment of the two major protein degradation systems, namely, the autophagy-lysosome system and the proteasome pathway. HSP70 family proteins work closely with the HSP90 molecular chaperone to maintain the stability and activities of their many client proteins, and PES causes a disruption in the HSP70/HSP90 chaperone system. As a consequence, many cellular proteins, including known HSP70/HSP90 substrates, accumulate in detergent-insoluble cell fractions, indicative of aggregation and functional inactivation. Overall, PES simultaneously disrupts several cancer critical survival pathways, supporting the idea of targeting HSP70 as a potential approach for cancer therapeutics.
Article: Primate chaperones Hsc70 (constitutive) and Hsp70 (induced) differ functionally in supporting growth and prion propagation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hsp70's are highly conserved essential protein chaperones that assist protein folding and prevent protein aggregation. They have modular structures consisting of ATPase, substrate-binding, and C-terminal domains. Substrate binding and release is regulated by ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide exchange, which in turn are regulated by cochaperones. Eukaryotes have constitutive (Hsc70) and stress-inducible (iHsp70) isoforms, but their functions have not been systematically compared. Using a yeast system to evaluate heterologous Hsp70's we find that primate Hsc70 supported growth but iHsp70 did not. Plant Hsc70 and iHsp70 counterparts behaved similarly, implying evolutionary conservation of this distinction. Swapping yeast and primate Hsp70 domains showed that (i) the Hsc70-iHsp70 distinction resided in the ATPase domain, (ii) substrate-binding domains of Hsp70's within and across species functioned similarly regarding growth, (iii) C-terminal domain function was important for growth, and (iv) Hsp70 functions important for cell growth and prion propagation were separable. Enzymatic analysis uncovered a correlation between substrate affinity and prion phenotype and showed that ATPase and protein-folding activities were generally similar. Our data support a view that intrinsic activities of Hsp70 isoforms are comparable, and functional differences in vivo lie mainly in complex interactions of Hsp70 with cochaperones.Genetics 03/2006; 172(2):851-61. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of a number of conditionally activated and/or expressed signalling proteins, as well as multiple mutated, chimeric, and/or over-expressed signalling proteins, that promote cancer cell growth and/or survival. Hsp90 inhibitors are unique in that, although they are directed towards a specific molecular target, they simultaneously inhibit multiple cellular signalling pathways. By inhibiting nodal points in multiple overlapping survival pathways utilized by cancer cells, combination of an Hsp90 inhibitor with standard chemotherapeutic agents may dramatically increase the in vivo efficacy of the standard agent. Hsp90 inhibitors may circumvent the characteristic genetic plasticity that has allowed cancer cells to eventually evade the toxic effects of most molecularly targeted agents. The mechanism-based use of Hsp90 inhibitors, both alone and in combination with other drugs, should be effective toward multiple forms of cancer. Further, because Hsp90 inhibitors also induce Hsf-1-dependent expression of Hsp70, and because certain mutated Hsp90 client proteins are neurotoxic, these drugs display ameliorative properties in several neurodegenerative disease models, suggesting a novel role for Hsp90 inhibitors in treating multiple pathologies involving neurodegeneration.Journal of Biosciences 05/2007; 32(3):517-30. · 1.65 Impact Factor