Endogenous peptide elicitors in higher plants.
ABSTRACT Plant defense responses against invading organisms are initiated through the perception of molecules associated with attacking microbes and herbivores by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to elicitor molecules derived from attacking organisms, plants recognize host-derived molecules. These endogenous elicitors induce and amplify the defense responses against invading organisms both locally and systemically. Several classes of plant-derived molecules elicit defense, including cell wall fragments and peptides. Endogenous peptide elicitors have been discovered in species across the plant kingdom, and their role regulating immunity to both herbivores and pathogens is becoming increasingly appreciated. In this review, we will focus on the five known endogenous peptide elicitor families, summarize their properties, and discuss research goals to further understanding of plant innate immunity.
Article: Layered pattern receptor signaling via ethylene and endogenous elicitor peptides during Arabidopsis immunity to bacterial infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recognition of molecular patterns characteristic of microbes or altered-self leads to immune activation in multicellular eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinases FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) recognize bacterial flagellin and elongation factor EF-Tu (and their elicitor-active epitopes flg22 and elf18), respectively. Likewise, PEP1 RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2 recognize the elicitor-active Pep epitopes conserved in Arabidopsis ELICITOR PEPTIDE PRECURSORs (PROPEPs). Here we reveal that loss of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a master signaling regulator of the phytohormone ethylene (ET), lowers sensitivity to both elf18 and flg22 in different defense-related outputs. Remarkably, in contrast to a large decrease in FLS2 expression, EFR expression and receptor accumulation remain unaffected in ein2 plants. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling has uncovered an inventory of EIN2-dependent and EFR-regulated genes. This dataset highlights important aspects of how ET modulates EFR-triggered immunity: the potentiation of salicylate-based immunity and the repression of a jasmonate-related branch. EFR requires ET signaling components for PROPEP2 activation but not for PROPEP3 activation, pointing to both ET-dependent and -independent engagement of the PEPR pathway during EFR-triggered immunity. Moreover, PEPR activation compensates the ein2 defects for a subset of EFR-regulated genes. Accordingly, ein2 pepr1 pepr2 plants exhibit additive defects in EFR-triggered antibacterial immunity, compared with ein2 or pepr1 pepr2 plants. Our findings suggest that the PEPR pathway not only mediates ET signaling but also compensates for its absence in enhancing plant immunity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; · 9.68 Impact Factor