Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of endophilin B1 is required for induced autophagy in models of Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase that is increasingly implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Deregulated Cdk5 activity has been associated with neuronal death, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report an unexpected role for Cdk5 in the regulation of induced autophagy in neurons. We have identified endophilin B1 (EndoB1) as a Cdk5 substrate, and show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of EndoB1 is required for autophagy induction in starved neurons. Furthermore, phosphorylation of EndoB1 facilitates EndoB1 dimerization and recruitment of UVRAG (UV radiation resistance-associated gene). More importantly, Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of EndoB1 is essential for autophagy induction and neuronal loss in models of Parkinson’s disease. Our findings not only establish Cdk5 as a critical regulator of autophagy induction, but also reveal a role for Cdk5 and EndoB1 in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease through modulating autophagy.
- SourceAvailable from: Ruben Dagda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone) have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of PD. Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Functional as well as structural alterations in mitochondria size, shape and distribution are precipitating, early events in progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We reported that a 20–22 kDa NH2-tau fragment (aka NH2htau), mapping between 26 and 230 amino acids of the longest human tau isoform, is detected in cellular and animal AD models and is neurotoxic in hippocampal neurons. The NH2htau –but not the physiological full-length protein– interacts with Aβ at human AD synapses and cooperates with it in inhibiting the mitochondrial ANT-1-dependent ADP/ATP exchange. Here we show that the NH2htau also adversely affects the interplay between the mitochondria dynamics and their selective autophagic clearance. Fragmentation and perinuclear mislocalization of mitochondria with smaller size and density are early found in dying NH2htau-expressing neurons. The specific effect of NH2htau on quality control of mitochondria is accompanied by (i) net reduction in their mass in correlation with a general Parkin-mediated remodeling of membrane proteome; (ii) their extensive association with LC3 and LAMP1 autophagic markers; (iii) bioenergetic deficits and (iv) in vitro synaptic pathology. These results suggest that NH2htau can compromise the mitochondrial biology thereby contributing to AD synaptic deficits not only by ANT-1 inactivation but also, indirectly, by impairing the quality control mechanism of these organelles.Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014; 62:489–507. · 5.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a key receptor that mediates dopamine-associated brain functions such as mood, reward, and emotion. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase whose function has been implicated in the brain reward circuit. In this study, we revealed that the serine 321 residue (S321) in the third intracellular loop of DRD2 (D2i3) is a novel regulatory site of Cdk5. Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of S321 in the D2i3 was observed in in vitro and cell culture systems. We further observed that the phosphorylation of S321 impaired the agonist-stimulated surface expression of DRD2 and decreased G protein coupling to DRD2. Moreover, the downstream cAMP pathway was affected in the heterologous system and in primary neuronal cultures from p35 knockout embryos likely due to the reduced inhibitory activity of DRD2. These results indicate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of S321 inhibits DRD2 function, providing a novel regulatory mechanism for dopamine signaling.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84482. · 3.73 Impact Factor