Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of endophilin B1 is required for induced autophagy in models of Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase that is increasingly implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Deregulated Cdk5 activity has been associated with neuronal death, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report an unexpected role for Cdk5 in the regulation of induced autophagy in neurons. We have identified endophilin B1 (EndoB1) as a Cdk5 substrate, and show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of EndoB1 is required for autophagy induction in starved neurons. Furthermore, phosphorylation of EndoB1 facilitates EndoB1 dimerization and recruitment of UVRAG (UV radiation resistance-associated gene). More importantly, Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of EndoB1 is essential for autophagy induction and neuronal loss in models of Parkinson’s disease. Our findings not only establish Cdk5 as a critical regulator of autophagy induction, but also reveal a role for Cdk5 and EndoB1 in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease through modulating autophagy.
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ABSTRACT: The role of the serine protease HtrA2 in neuroprotection was initially identified by the demonstration of neurodegeneration in mice lacking HtrA2 expression or function, and the interesting finding that mutations adjacent to two putative phosphorylation sites (S142 and S400) have been found in Parkinson's disease patients. However, the mechanism of this neuroprotection and the signalling pathways associated with it remain mostly unknown. Here we report that cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5), a kinase implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, is responsible for phosphorylating HtrA2 at S400. HtrA2 and Cdk5 interact in human and mouse cell lines and brain, and Cdk5 phosphorylates S400 on HtrA2 in a p38-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of HtrA2 at S400 is involved in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential under stress conditions and is important for mitochondrial function, conferring cells protection against cellular stress.Cell death and differentiation 06/2011; 19(2):257-66. · 8.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through targeting cytoplasmic contents and organelles into autophagosomes for degradation. This process begins with the assembly of protein complexes on isolation membrane to initiate the formation of autophagosome, followed by its nucleation, elongation and maturation. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes then leads to degradation of the cargo. In the past decade, significant advances have been made on the identification of molecular players that are implicated in various stages of macroautophagy. Post-translational modifications of macroautophagy regulators have also been demonstrated to be critical for the selective targeting of cytoplasmic contents into autophagosomes. In addition, recent demonstration of distinct macroautophagy regulators has led to the identification of different subtypes of macroautophagy. Since deregulation of macroautophagy is implicated in diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, cancers and inflammatory disorders, understanding the molecular machinery of macroautophagy is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms by which macroautophagy is deregulated in these diseases, thereby revealing new potential therapeutic targets and strategies. Here we summarize current knowledge on the regulation of mammalian macroautophagy machineries and their disease-associated deregulation.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2011; 1812(11):1490-7. · 4.66 Impact Factor