Deletion of the metabolic transcriptional coactivator PGC1β induces cardiac arrhythmia.
ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC1α and PGC1β modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. The function of these transcriptional coactivators is impaired in obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We searched for transcriptomic, lipidomic, and electrophysiological alterations in PGC1β(-/-) hearts potentially associated with increased arrhythmic risk in metabolic diseases.
Microarray analysis in mouse PGC1β(-/-) hearts confirmed down-regulation of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain and up-regulation of hypertrophy- and hypoxia-related genes. Lipidomic analysis showed increased levels of the pro-arrhythmic and pro-inflammatory lipid, lysophosphatidylcholine. PGC1β(-/-) mouse electrocardiograms showed irregular heartbeats and an increased incidence of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia following isoprenaline infusion. Langendorff-perfused PGC1β(-/-) hearts showed action potential alternans, early after-depolarizations, and ventricular tachycardia. PGC1β(-/-) ventricular myocytes showed oscillatory resting potentials, action potentials with early and delayed after-depolarizations, and burst firing during sustained current injection. They showed abnormal diastolic Ca(2+) transients, whose amplitude and frequency were increased by isoprenaline, and Ca(2+) currents with negatively shifted inactivation characteristics, with increased window currents despite unaltered levels of CACNA1C RNA transcripts. Inwardly and outward rectifying K(+) currents were all increased. Quantitiative RT-PCR demonstrated increased SCN5A, KCNA5, RYR2, and Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II expression.
PGC1β(-/-) hearts showed a lysophospholipid-induced cardiac lipotoxicity and impaired bioenergetics accompanied by an ion channel remodelling and altered Ca(2+) homeostasis, converging to produce a ventricular arrhythmic phenotype particularly during adrenergic stress. This could contribute to the increased cardiac mortality associated with both metabolic and cardiac disease attributable to lysophospholipid accumulation.
Article: Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) activity is associated with increased risk of cardiac events, but it is not known whether Lp-PLA(2) is a causative agent. Here we show that selective inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) with darapladib reduced development of advanced coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic swine. Darapladib markedly inhibited plasma and lesion Lp-PLA(2) activity and reduced lesion lysophosphatidylcholine content. Analysis of coronary gene expression showed that darapladib exerted a general anti-inflammatory action, substantially reducing the expression of 24 genes associated with macrophage and T lymphocyte functioning. Darapladib treatment resulted in a considerable decrease in plaque area and, notably, a markedly reduced necrotic core area and reduced medial destruction, resulting in fewer lesions with an unstable phenotype. These data show that selective inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) inhibits progression to advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions and confirms a crucial role of vascular inflammation independent from hypercholesterolemia in the development of lesions implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and stroke.Nature medicine 10/2008; 14(10):1059-66. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The heart is a rhythmic electromechanical pump, the functioning of which depends on action potential generation and propagation, followed by relaxation and a period of refractoriness until the next impulse is generated. Myocardial action potentials reflect the sequential activation and inactivation of inward (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) and outward (K(+)) current carrying ion channels. In different regions of the heart, action potential waveforms are distinct, owing to differences in Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) channel expression, and these differences contribute to the normal, unidirectional propagation of activity and to the generation of normal cardiac rhythms. Changes in channel functioning, resulting from inherited or acquired disease, affect action potential repolarization and can lead to the generation of life-threatening arrhythmias. There is, therefore, considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms that control cardiac repolarization and rhythm generation. Electrophysiological studies have detailed the properties of the Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) currents that generate cardiac action potentials, and molecular cloning has revealed a large number of pore forming (alpha) and accessory (beta, delta, and gamma) subunits thought to contribute to the formation of these channels. Considerable progress has been made in defining the functional roles of the various channels and in identifying the alpha-subunits encoding these channels. Much less is known, however, about the functioning of channel accessory subunits and/or posttranslational processing of the channel proteins. It has also become clear that cardiac ion channels function as components of macromolecular complexes, comprising the alpha-subunits, one or more accessory subunit, and a variety of other regulatory proteins. In addition, these macromolecular channel protein complexes appear to interact with the actin cytoskeleton and/or the extracellular matrix, suggesting important functional links between channel complexes, as well as between cardiac structure and electrical functioning. Important areas of future research will be the identification of (all of) the molecular components of functional cardiac ion channels and delineation of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression and the functioning of these channels in the normal and the diseased myocardium.Physiological Reviews 11/2005; 85(4):1205-53. · 26.87 Impact Factor