Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is critical for correction of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled PERT withdrawal study evaluating the efficacy and safety of PANCREAZE® (pancrelipase) in CF patients with EPI. Participants (n=49) entered an open-label, ≤ 14 day run-in phase, maintained a high-fat diet (100 ± 15 g/day), and received PANCREAZE® (10.5 or 21). Participants with a coefficient of fat absorption (CFA)≥ 80% (n=40) were then randomized (1:1) to receive either PANCREAZE® or placebo during a double-blind, ≤ 7 day withdrawal phase.
PANCREAZE® improved fat absorption as shown by significantly lower mean ± SD change in CFA between open-label and double-blind phases for PANCREAZE® (-1.5 ± 5.88%; p<0.001) compared to placebo (-34.1 ± 23.03%). Protein absorption was similarly improved. No unexpected adverse events were reported.
This study demonstrated PANCREAZE® was effective in treating EPI due to CF and was safe and well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic pulmonary infection is an unfavourable event in cystic fibrosis. Bacterial clearance is possible with an early antibiotic treatment upon pathogen isolation. Currently, no best practice exists for early treatment. The efficacy of two different regimens against initial P aeruginosa infection was assessed. METHODS: In a randomised, open-label, parallel-group study involving 13 centres, the superiority of inhaled tobramycin/oral ciprofloxacin compared with inhaled colistin/oral ciprofloxacin (reference treatment) over 28 days was evaluated. Patients were eligible if they were older than 1 year with first or new P aeruginosa isolation. Treatments were assigned equally by centralised balanced randomisation, stratified by age and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The participants and those giving the intervention were not masked to arm assignments. The primary endpoint was P aeruginosa eradication, defined as three successive negative cultures in 6 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was registered with EudraCT, number 2008-006502-42. RESULTS: 105 patients were assigned to inhaled colistin/oral ciprofloxacin (arm A) and 118 to inhaled tobramycin/oral ciprofloxacin (arm B). All patients were analysed. P aeruginosa was eradicated in 66 (62.8%) patients in arm A and in 77 (65.2%) in arm B (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.55, p=0.81). Following treatment, an increase in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was noted (OR 3.97, 95% CI 2.27 to 6.94, p=0.001) with no differences between the two arms (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.78, p=0.88). CONCLUSIONS: No superiority of treatment under study was demonstrated in comparison to the reference treatment. Early eradication treatment was associated with an increase in S maltophilia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is often observed in patients with pancreatic diseases, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and tumors, or after surgical resection. PEI often results in malnutrition, weight loss and steatorrhea, which together increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, nutritional interventions, such as low-fat diets and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT), are needed to improve the clinical symptoms, and to address the pathophysiology of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. PERT with delayed-release pancrelipase is now becoming a standard therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency because it significantly improves the coefficients of fat and nitrogen absorption as well as clinical symptoms, without serious treatment-emergent adverse events. The major adverse events were tolerable gastrointestinal tract symptoms, such as stomach pain, nausea, and bloating. Fibrosing colonopathy, a serious complication, is associated with high doses of enzymes. Several pancrelipase products have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in recent years. Although many double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pancrelipase products have been conducted in recent years, these studies have enrolled relatively few patients and have often been less than a few weeks in duration. Moreover, few studies have addressed the issue of pancreatic diabetes, a type of diabetes that is characterized by frequent hypoglycemia, which is difficult to manage. In addition, it is unclear whether PERT improves morbidity and mortality in such settings. Therefore, large, long-term prospective studies are needed to identify the optimal treatment for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The studies should also examine the extent to which PERT using pancrelipase improves mortality and morbidity. The etiology and severity of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency often differ among patients with gastrointestinal diseases or diabetes (type 1 and type 2), and among elderly subjects. Finally, although there is currently limited clinical evidence, numerous extrapancreatic diseases and conditions that are highly prevalent in the general population may also be considered potential targets for PERT and related treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, affects approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. In 1998, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) launched the CF Therapeutics Development Network (CF-TDN) as a central element of its Therapeutics Development Programme. Designed to accelerate the clinical evaluation of new therapies needed to fulfil the CFF mission to control and cure CF, the CF-TDN has conducted 75 clinical trials since its inception, and has contributed to studies as varied as initial safety and proof of concept trials to pivotal programmes required for regulatory approval. This review highlights recent and significant research efforts of the CF-TDN, including a summary of contributions to studies involving CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators, airway surface liquid hydrators and mucus modifiers, anti-infectives, anti-inflammatories, and nutritional therapies. Efforts to advance CF biomarkers, necessary to accelerate the therapeutic goals of the network, are also summarised.
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