Predicting streptococcal pharyngitis in adults in primary care: A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs and validation of the Centor score

HRB Centre for Primary Care Research, Department of General Practice, RCSI Medical School, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.
BMC Medicine (Impact Factor: 7.25). 06/2011; 9(1):67. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-9-67
Source: PubMed


Stratifying patients with a sore throat into the probability of having an underlying bacterial or viral cause may be helpful in targeting antibiotic treatment. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and validate a clinical prediction rule (CPR), the Centor score, for predicting group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis in adults (> 14 years of age) presenting with sore throat symptoms.
A systematic literature search was performed up to July 2010. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and/or validated the Centor score were included. For the analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and the Centor score, studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model, while for the calibration analysis of the Centor score, a random effects model was used.
A total of 21 studies incorporating 4,839 patients were included in the meta-analysis on diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms. The results were heterogeneous and suggest that individual signs and symptoms generate only small shifts in post-test probability (range positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 1.45-2.33, -LR 0.54-0.72). As a decision rule for considering antibiotic prescribing (score ≥ 3), the Centor score has reasonable specificity (0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and a post-test probability of 12% to 40% based on a prior prevalence of 5% to 20%. Pooled calibration shows no significant difference between the numbers of patients predicted and observed to have GABHS pharyngitis across strata of Centor score (0-1 risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.06; 2-3 RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.17; 4 RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.37).
Individual signs and symptoms are not powerful enough to discriminate GABHS pharyngitis from other types of sore throat. The Centor score is a well calibrated CPR for estimating the probability of GABHS pharyngitis. The Centor score can enhance appropriate prescribing of antibiotics, but should be used with caution in low prevalence settings of GABHS pharyngitis such as primary care.

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Available from: Borislav D Dimitrov, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Although our findings are similar to those of other studies conducted in western countries, the enormity of the problem seems to be much larger in Pakistan due to the large numbers of patients seeking medical attention for pharyngitis [32,33]. Many factors could have contributed to inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for pharyngitis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) can cause bacterial pharyngitis, the most common etiology is viral; despite this viral etiology, antibiotics are commonly prescribed for this infection in industrialized countries. We investigated the prevalence of GABHS in adult pharyngitis patients from lower socioeconomic settings in Karachi, Pakistan, how often antibiotics are prescribed for pharyngitis and if appropriate agents were used in a developing world setting. Finally, we wanted to see the usefulness of modified McIsaac scores in predicting positive cultures. Methods Adult patients were recruited from three local hospital outpatient dispensaries (OPDs). All patients aged 14–65 years who were suspected of having bacterial pharyngitis had throat swabs taken. Laboratory results for GABHS pharyngitis were then compared with their prescriptions. Appropriateness (using the World Health Organization’s definition) and type of antibiotic prescribed were assessed. Results Of 137 patients, 30 patients each were studied for scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3; 17 patients were studied for score 4. Although 6 (4.4%) patients were GABHS+, for a prevalence of 43.8 per 1000 population, antibiotics were prescribed to 135 patients (98.5%). Of these, only 11.1% received appropriate antibiotics while 88.9% received inappropriate antibiotics. Penicillins were prescribed most (34.1%), especially amoxicillin/clavulanate; followed by macrolides (31.1%), especially the second-generation agents, and fluoroquinolones (14.8%). McIsaac scores were found to be 100% sensitive and 68.7% specific, giving a positive predictive value (PPV) of 12.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. Conclusions Antibiotics were prescribed irrationally to adult pharyngitis patients, as most cultures were negative for bacterial infection. McIsaac modification of Centor scores related directly to culture results. We would therefore highly recommend its use to help family physicians make treatment decisions for adult pharyngitis patients.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 11/2012; 12(1):70. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-12-70 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for primary care from electronic databases is difficult. This study aims to identify a search filter to optimize retrieval of these to establish a register of CPRs for the Cochrane Primary Health Care field. Thirty primary care journals were manually searched for CPRs. This was compared with electronic search filters using alternative methodologies: (1) textword searching; (2) proximity searching; (3) inclusion terms using specific phrases and truncation; (4) exclusion terms; and (5) combinations of methodologies. We manually searched 6,344 articles, revealing 41 CPRs. Across the 45 search filters, sensitivities ranged from 12% to 98%, whereas specificities ranged from 43% to 100%. There was generally a trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity of each filter (i.e., the number of CPRs and total number of articles retrieved). Combining textword searching with the inclusion terms (using specific phrases) resulted in the highest sensitivity (98%) but lower specificity (59%) than other methods. The associated precision (2%) and accuracy (60%) were also low. The novel use of combining textword searching with inclusion terms was considered the most appropriate for updating a register of primary care CPRs where sensitivity has to be optimized.
    Journal of clinical epidemiology 03/2011; 64(8):848-60. DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.11.011 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centor and McIsaac scores guide testing and treatment for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in patients presenting with a sore throat, but they were derived on relatively small samples. We perform a national-scale validation of the prediction models on a large, geographically diverse population. We analyzed data collected from 206,870 patients 3 years or older who presented with a painful throat to a United States national retail health chain from September 1, 2006, to December 1, 2008. Main outcome measures were the proportions of patients testing positive for GAS pharyngitis according to the Centor and McIsaac scores (both scales, 0-4). For patients 15 years or older, 23% (95% CI, 22%-23%) tested positive for GAS, including 7% (95% CI, 7%-8%) of those with a Centor score of 0; 12% (95% CI, 11%-12%) of those with a Centor score of 1; 21% (95% CI, 21%-22%) of those with a Centor score of 2; 38% (95% CI, 38%-39%) of those with a Centor score of 3; and 57% (95% CI, 56%-58%) of those with a Centor score of 4. For patients 3 years or older, 27% (95% CI, 27%-27%) tested positive for GAS, including 8% (95% CI, 8%-9%) of those testing positive with aMcIsaac score of 0; 14% (95% CI, 13%-14%) of those with a McIsaac score of 1; 23% (95% CI, 23%-23%) of those with a McIsaac score of 2; 37% (95% CI, 37%-37%) of those with a McIsaac score of 3; and 55% (95% CI, 55%-56%) of those with a McIsaac score of 4. The 95% CIs overlapped between our retail health chain–derived probabilities and the prior reports. Our study validates the Centor and McIsaac scores and more precisely classifies risk of GAS infection among patients presenting with a painful throat to a retail health chain.
    Archives of internal medicine 05/2012; 172(11):847-52. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.950 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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