Article

Low-diversity bacterial community in the gut of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster.

Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall Department of Computer Science, Upson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 6.24). 06/2011; 13(7):1889-900. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02511.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The bacteria in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster of different life stages was quantified by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The sequence reads were dominated by 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at ≤ 97% sequence identity that could be assigned to Acetobacter pomorum, A. tropicalis, Lactobacillus brevis, L. fructivorans and L. plantarum. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicated that the sampling (85,000-159,000 reads per sample) was comprehensive. Parallel diagnostic PCR assays revealed only minor variation in the complement of the five bacterial species across individual insects and three D. melanogaster strains. Other gut-associated bacteria included 6 OTUs with low %ID to previously reported sequences, raising the possibility that they represent novel taxa within the genera Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. A developmental change in the most abundant species, from L. fructivorans in young adults to A. pomorum in aged adults was identified; changes in gut oxygen tension or immune system function might account for this effect. Host immune responses and disturbance may also contribute to the low bacterial diversity in the Drosophila gut habitat.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
138 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Highlights •Association with microbes rescues Drosophila lifespan during undernutrition •Microbes harvest amino acids and enhance nutrient flux to the fly •Microbial association during undernutrition restores fly physiology and metabolism
    Cell Reports 02/2015; 10:1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.01.018 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of antimicrobial peptide responses 40 years ago, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a powerful model for the study of innate immunity. Early work focused on innate immune mechanisms of microbial recognition and subsequent nuclear factor-κB signal transduction. More recently, D. melanogaster has been used to understand how the immune response is regulated and coordinated at the level of the whole organism. For example, researchers have used this model in studies investigating interactions between the microbiota and the immune system at barrier epithelial surfaces that ensure proper nutritional and immune homeostasis both locally and systemically. In addition, studies in D. melanogaster have been pivotal in uncovering how the immune response is regulated by both endocrine and metabolic signalling systems, and how the immune response modifies these systems as part of a homeostatic circuit. In this Review, we briefly summarize microbial recognition and antiviral immunity in D. melanogaster, and we highlight recent studies that have explored the effects of organism-wide regulation of the immune response and, conversely, the effects of the immune response on organism physiology.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 11/2014; 14(12):796-810. DOI:10.1038/nri3763 · 33.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that naturally infect a diverse array of arthropods. They are primarily known for their manipulation of host reproductive biology, and recently, infections with Wolbachia have been proposed as a new strategy for controlling insect vectors and subsequent human-transmissible diseases. Yet, Wolbachia abundance has been shown to vary greatly between individuals and the magnitude of the effects of infection on host life-history traits and protection against infection is correlated to within-host Wolbachia abundance. It is therefore essential to better understand the factors that modulate Wolbachia abundance and effects on host fitness. Nutrition is known to be one of the most important mediators of host-symbiont interactions. Here, we used nutritional geometry to quantify the role of macronutrients on insect-Wolbachia relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show fundamental interactions between diet composition, host diet selection, Wolbachia abundance and effects on host lifespan and fecundity. The results and methods described here open a new avenue in the study of insect-Wolbachia relationships and are of general interest to numerous research disciplines, ranging from nutrition and life-history theory to public health. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 02/2015; 282(1800). DOI:10.1098/rspb.2014.2029 · 5.29 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
72 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014