Outcomes of screening-detected ductal carcinoma in situ treated with wide excision alone

Department of Surgery, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 06/2011; 18(13):3778-84. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-011-1748-6
Source: PubMed


Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is commonly identified on screening mammography. Standard treatment for localized DCIS is wide local excision (WLE) and adjuvant radiotherapy. This approach represents overtreatment in many cases, where the DCIS would never have become clinically significant, or where less intensive treatment would have been satisfactory. We reviewed the medium-term outcome of a cohort of screen detected DCIS patients treated mainly with WLE without radiotherapy.
All patients diagnosed with DCIS at NorthWestern BreastScreen between January 1994 and December 2005 were identified from a prospective database. Demographic, pathological, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Survival and local recurrence (LR) rates were determined, and associations between various factors and recurrence were analyzed.
A total of 422 patients were diagnosed with DCIS. There were 400 patients treated with WLE, and 27 of these received adjuvant radiotherapy. The 5- and 8-year overall and breast cancer specific survival rates were 96.1 and 91.3%, and 99.6 and 99.3%, respectively. The local recurrence rate was 15.4 and 17.1% at 5 and 8 years. Of 56 local recurrences, 34 had WLE after recurrence, 16 of which had adjuvant radiotherapy. No single factor was statistically significantly associated with local recurrence, although combining factors revealed groups where the LR rate was less than 5%.
Breast cancer specific mortality was very low in this cohort of older patients with screen-detected DCIS. There was a moderate rate of local recurrence that could usually be salvaged with breast conservation. Decisions regarding adjuvant radiotherapy should take these findings into account.

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    • "Finally, we have entered an era of increasing awareness among women and diagnosis of smaller tumors is more often reported. Outcome of screening-detected DCIS treated with excision alone may be more favourable, and although recurrence rates of 15% at 5 years are reported, these are often successfully salvaged with breast conservation, with overall breast-specific survival of 99% [25]. In NSABP B-17 histologically negative surgical margins were required. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ductal Carcinoma in situ has been diagnosed more frequently in the last few years and now accounts for approximately one-fourth of all treated breast cancers. Traditionally, this disease has been treated with total mastectomy, but conservative surgery has become increasingly used in the absence of unfavourable clinical conditions, if a negative excision margin can be achieved. It is controversial whether subgroups of patients with favourable in situ tumors could be managed by conservative surgery alone, without radiation. As the disease is diagnosed more frequently in younger patients, these issues are very relevant, and much research has focused on this topic in the last two decades. We reviewed randomized trials regarding adjuvant radiation after breast-conservative surgery and compared data with available retrospective studies.
    International Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 2012:296829. DOI:10.1155/2012/296829
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    ABSTRACT: In September 2010, the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute convened a conference to review current issues in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) risk communication and decision-making and to identify directions for future research. Specific topics included patient and health care provider knowledge and attitudes about DCIS and its treatment, how to explain DCIS to patients given the heterogeneity of the disease, consideration of nomenclature changes, and the usefulness of decision tools/aids. This report describes the proceedings of the workshop in the context of the current literature and discusses future directions. Evidence suggests that there is a lack of clarity about the implications and risks of a diagnosis of DCIS among patients, providers, and researchers. Research is needed to understand better the biology and mechanisms of the progression of DCIS to invasive breast cancer and the factors that predict those subtypes of DCIS that do not progress, as well as efforts to improve the communication and informed decision-making surrounding DCIS.
    CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 04/2012; 62(3):203-10. DOI:10.3322/caac.21140 · 115.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the marked variability in patterns of care highlight the need for comparative effectiveness research. We sought to quantify the tradeoffs among alternative management strategies for DCIS with respect to disease outcomes and breast preservation.Methods We developed a disease simulation model integrating data from the published literature to simulate the clinical events after six treatments (lumpectomy alone, lumpectomy with radiation, lumpectomy with radiation and tamoxifen, lumpectomy with tamoxifen, and mastectomy with and without breast reconstruction) for women with newly diagnosed DCIS. Outcomes included disease-free, invasive disease-free, and overall survival and breast preservation.ResultsFor a cohort of 1 million simulated women aged 45 years at diagnosis, both mastectomy and lumpectomy with radiation and tamoxifen were associated with a 12-month improvement in overall survival relative to lumpectomy alone. Adding radiation therapy to lumpectomy resulted in a 6-month improvement in overall survival but decreased long-term breast-preservation outcomes (likelihood of lifetime breast preservation = 0.781 vs 0.843 for lumpectomy alone). This decrement with radiation therapy was mitigated by the addition of tamoxifen (likelihood of lifetime breast preservation = 0.846).Conclusions Overall survival benefits of the six management strategies for DCIS are within 1 year, suggesting that treatment decisions can be informed by the patient's preference for breast preservation and disutility for recurrence. Our delineation of personalized outcomes for each strategy can help patients understand the implications of their treatment choice, so their decisions may reflect their own personal values and help improve the quality of care for patients with DCIS.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 05/2013; 105(11). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt096 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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