Outcomes of screening-detected ductal carcinoma in situ treated with wide excision alone.

Department of Surgery, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 4.12). 06/2011; 18(13):3778-84. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-011-1748-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is commonly identified on screening mammography. Standard treatment for localized DCIS is wide local excision (WLE) and adjuvant radiotherapy. This approach represents overtreatment in many cases, where the DCIS would never have become clinically significant, or where less intensive treatment would have been satisfactory. We reviewed the medium-term outcome of a cohort of screen detected DCIS patients treated mainly with WLE without radiotherapy.
All patients diagnosed with DCIS at NorthWestern BreastScreen between January 1994 and December 2005 were identified from a prospective database. Demographic, pathological, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Survival and local recurrence (LR) rates were determined, and associations between various factors and recurrence were analyzed.
A total of 422 patients were diagnosed with DCIS. There were 400 patients treated with WLE, and 27 of these received adjuvant radiotherapy. The 5- and 8-year overall and breast cancer specific survival rates were 96.1 and 91.3%, and 99.6 and 99.3%, respectively. The local recurrence rate was 15.4 and 17.1% at 5 and 8 years. Of 56 local recurrences, 34 had WLE after recurrence, 16 of which had adjuvant radiotherapy. No single factor was statistically significantly associated with local recurrence, although combining factors revealed groups where the LR rate was less than 5%.
Breast cancer specific mortality was very low in this cohort of older patients with screen-detected DCIS. There was a moderate rate of local recurrence that could usually be salvaged with breast conservation. Decisions regarding adjuvant radiotherapy should take these findings into account.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the marked variability in patterns of care highlight the need for comparative effectiveness research. We sought to quantify the tradeoffs among alternative management strategies for DCIS with respect to disease outcomes and breast preservation.Methods We developed a disease simulation model integrating data from the published literature to simulate the clinical events after six treatments (lumpectomy alone, lumpectomy with radiation, lumpectomy with radiation and tamoxifen, lumpectomy with tamoxifen, and mastectomy with and without breast reconstruction) for women with newly diagnosed DCIS. Outcomes included disease-free, invasive disease-free, and overall survival and breast preservation.ResultsFor a cohort of 1 million simulated women aged 45 years at diagnosis, both mastectomy and lumpectomy with radiation and tamoxifen were associated with a 12-month improvement in overall survival relative to lumpectomy alone. Adding radiation therapy to lumpectomy resulted in a 6-month improvement in overall survival but decreased long-term breast-preservation outcomes (likelihood of lifetime breast preservation = 0.781 vs 0.843 for lumpectomy alone). This decrement with radiation therapy was mitigated by the addition of tamoxifen (likelihood of lifetime breast preservation = 0.846).Conclusions Overall survival benefits of the six management strategies for DCIS are within 1 year, suggesting that treatment decisions can be informed by the patient's preference for breast preservation and disutility for recurrence. Our delineation of personalized outcomes for each strategy can help patients understand the implications of their treatment choice, so their decisions may reflect their own personal values and help improve the quality of care for patients with DCIS.
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    ABSTRACT: Corresponding to the increased use of mammography, the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has risen dramatically in the past 30 years. Despite its growing incidence, the treatment of DCIS remains highly variable and controversial. Although DCIS itself does not metastasize and is never lethal, it may be a precursor of invasive breast cancer and is a marker of increased breast cancer risk. Confusing a precursor lesion with cancer, many clinicians apply an invasive breast cancer treatment paradigm to DCIS patients, offering adjuvant radiation therapy and tamoxifen after diagnosis. In this commentary, we outline the issues associated with DCIS management-is DCIS a cancer, a precursor of cancer, or a marker of invasive carcinoma risk? Specifically, we argue that consideration be given to removing the term "carcinoma" from DCIS, using cancer "occurrence" to mean the diagnosis of invasive cancer after DCIS instead of "recurrence," and make the argument that a prophylactic paradigm of treatment after excision may be more appropriate.
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