The concept of FDG-PET endophenotype in Alzheimer's disease
ABSTRACT Often viewed as a potential tool for preclinical diagnosis in early asymptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the term "endophenotype" has acquired a recent popularity in the field. In this review, we analyze the construct of endophenotype-originally designed to discover genes, and examine the literature on potential endophenotypes for the late-onset form of AD (LOAD). We focus on the [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET technique, which shows a characteristic pattern of hypometabolism in AD-related regions in asymptomatic carriers of the ApoE E4 allele and in children of AD mothers. We discuss the pathophysiological significance and the positive predictive accuracy of an FDG-endophenotype for LOAD in asymptomatic subjects, and discuss several applications of this endophenotype in the identification of both promoting and protective factors. Finally, we suggest that the term "endophenotype" should be reserved to the study of risk factors, and not to the preclinical diagnosis of LOAD.
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ABSTRACT: We explored resting-state metabolic connectivity in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients and in healthy controls (CTR), through a voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) by means of statistical parametric mapping. Baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography of 36 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia after an average time of 2 years (pAD) and of 105 CTR were processed. The area of hypometabolism in pAD showed less metabolic connectivity in patients than in CTR (autocorrelation and correlation with large temporal and frontal areas, respectively). pAD patients showed limited correlation even in selected nonhypometabolic areas, including the hippocampi and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFC). On the contrary, in CTR group correlation was highlighted between hippocampi and precuneus/posterior cingulate and frontal cortex, and between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nuclei and parietal cortex. The reduced metabolic connections both in hypometabolic and nonhypometabolic areas in pAD patients suggest that metabolic disconnection (reflecting early diaschisis) may antedate remote hypometabolism (early sign of synaptic degeneration).Neurobiology of aging 02/2012; 33(11):2533-50. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.01.005
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ABSTRACT: Identifying risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, such as carrying the APOE-4 allele, and understanding their contributions to disease pathophysiology or clinical presentation is critical for establishing and improving diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease represents a composite risk factor, which reflects the influence of known and unknown susceptibility genes and perhaps non-genetic risks. There is emerging evidence that investigating family history risk associated effects may contribute to advances in Alzheimer's disease research and ultimately clinical practice.Neuropsychology Review 02/2012; 22(3):298-309. DOI:10.1007/s11065-012-9193-2
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ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from prodromal (i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and overt Alzheimer's disease (AD) show abnormal cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Here we tested the hypothesis that these sources show extensive abnormalities in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients with a cognitive impairment due to covert and diffuse hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). EEG activity was recorded in 64 LC (including 21 CHE), 21 aMCI, 21 AD, and 21 cognitively intact (Nold) subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by LORETA. Widespread sources of theta (all but frontal), alpha 1 (all but occipital), and alpha 2 (parietal, temporal) rhythms were higher in amplitude in all LC patients than in the Nold subjects. In these LC patients, the activity of central, parietal, and temporal theta sources correlated negatively, and parietal and temporal alpha 2 sources correlated positively with an index of global cognitive status. Finally, widespread theta (all but frontal) and alpha 1 (all but occipital) sources showed higher activity in the sub-group of LC patients with CHE than in the patients with aMCI or AD. These results unveiled the larger spatial-frequency abnormalities of the resting state EEG sources in the CHE compared to the AD condition.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2012; 34(3). DOI:10.3233/JAD-121807