Mechanisms of Lipotoxicity in NAFLD and Clinical Implications

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.87). 05/2011; 53(2):131-40. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31822578db
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With the epidemic of childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in pediatrics. NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance and increased level of serum free fatty acids (FFAs). FFAs have direct hepatotoxicity through the induction of an endoplasmic reticulum stress response and subsequently activation of the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. FFAs may also result in lysosomal dysfunction and alter death receptor gene expression. Lipoapoptosis is a key pathogenic process in NAFLD, and correlates with progressive inflammation, and fibrosis. Accumulation of triglyceride in the liver results from uptake and esterification of FFAs by the hepatocyte, and is less likely to be hepatotoxic per se. To date, there are no proven effective therapies that halt NAFLD progression or unfortunately improve prognosis in children. The cellular mechanisms of lipotoxicity are complex but provide potential therapeutic targets for NAFLD. In this review we discuss several potential therapeutic opportunities in detail including inhibition of apoptosis, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

  • Source
    BioMed Research International 04/2015; 2015. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered as the most common liver disease in Western countries, and is rapidly becoming a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. The ghrelin-ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) system has recently been found to play a crucial role in both the development of steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a 28-amino acid peptide possessing a unique acylation on the serine in position 3 catalyzed by GOAT. The ghrelin-GOAT system is involved in insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and inflammation, all of which play important roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A better understanding of ghrelin-GOAT system biology led to the identification of its potential roles in NAFLD. Molecular targets modulating ghrelin-GOAT levels and the biologic effects are being studied, which provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This review probes into the possible relationship between the ghrelin-GOAT system and NAFLD, and considers the potential mechanisms by which the ghrelin-GOAT system brings about insulin resistance and other aspects concerning NAFLD.
    03/2015; 21(11):3214-3222. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3214
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen (free radicals) and the body's ability (antioxidant capacity) to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. An adequate diet, characterized by daily intake of foods associated with improvements in the total antioxidant capacity of individuals and reduced incidence of diseases related to oxidation, can modulate the degree of oxidative stress. In fact, diet-derived micronutrients may be direct antioxidants, or are components of antioxidant enzymes, leading to improvement of some indicators of hepatic function. However, although their increased dietary intake might be beneficial, literature data are still controversial. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of diet nutrients on oxidative stress, inflammation and liver function. Moreover, we have analyzed: (1) the main nutritional components involved in the production and/or removal of free radicals; and (2) the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of several hepatic diseases and related comorbidities.


Available from