2-Hydroxylated fatty acid (HFA)-containing sphingolipids are abundant in mammalian skin and are believed to play a role in the formation of the epidermal barrier. Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), required for the synthesis of 2-hydroxylated sphingolipids in various organs, is highly expressed in skin, and previous in vitro studies demonstrated its role in the synthesis of HFA sphingolipids in human keratinocytes. Unexpectedly, however, mice deficient in FA2H did not show significant changes in their epidermal HFA sphingolipids. Expression of FA2H in murine skin was restricted to the sebaceous glands, where it was required for synthesis of 2-hydroxylated glucosylceramide and a fraction of type II wax diesters. Absence of FA2H resulted in hyperproliferation of sebocytes and enlarged sebaceous glands during hair follicle morphogenesis and anagen (active growth phase) in adult mice. This was accompanied by a significant up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand epigen in sebocytes. Loss of FA2H significantly altered the composition and physicochemical properties of sebum, which often blocked the hair canal, apparently causing a delay in the hair fiber exit. Furthermore, mice lacking FA2H displayed a cycling alopecia with hair loss in telogen. These results underline the importance of the sebaceous glands and suggest a role of specific sebaceous gland or sebum lipids, synthesized by FA2H, in the hair follicle homeostasis.
"The mammalian integument contains pilosebaceous units that are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle (Spearman 1973). Pilosebaceous units release protective oils onto the skin by holocrine (i.e., rupturing of individual sebocytes) and apocrine secretions (Maier et al. 2011; Smith and Thiboutot, 2008; Sugawara et al. 2012). Surface lipid (sebum) is composed largely of a complex mixture of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids (i.e., triacylglycerides [TAGs], diacylglycerides [DAGs], and monoacylglycerides [MAGs]), free fatty acids (FFAs), sterols, wax esters (WEs), sterol esters (SEs), and squalene (Drake et al. 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 02/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1007/s10886-014-0388-2 · 2.75 Impact Factor
"In mammals, FA2H-synthesized 2-HFAs abundantly accumulate in epidermal keratinocytes and the myelin-forming cells of the nervous system (Alderson et al., 2006; Uchida et al., 2007; Maldonado et al., 2008). Loss of FA2H in mouse altered the composition and physicochemical properties of sebum , causing alopecia (Maier et al., 2011). In addition, FA2H deficiency also causes a wide range of neurodegeneration phenotypes such as spastic paraplegia, leukodystrophy, and brain ion deposition (Schneider and Bhatia, 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Hydroxy fatty acids (2-HFAs) are predominantly present in sphingolipids and have important physicochemical and physiological functions in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies from our group demonstrated that sphingolipid fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FAH) is required for the function of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Bax inhibitor-1 (AtBI-1), which is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-localized cell death suppressor. However, little is known about the function of two Arabidopsis FAH homologs (AtFAH1 and AtFAH2), and it remains unclear whether 2-HFAs participate in cell death regulation. In this study, we found that both AtFAH1 and AtFAH2 had FAH activity, and the interaction with Arabidopsis cytochrome b₅ was needed for the sufficient activity. 2-HFA analysis of AtFAH1 knockdown lines and atfah2 mutant showed that AtFAH1 mainly 2-hydroxylated very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA), whereas AtFAH2 selectively 2-hydroxylated palmitic acid in Arabidopsis. In addition, 2-HFAs were related to resistance to oxidative stress, and AtFAH1 or 2-hydroxy VLCFA showed particularly strong responses to oxidative stress. Furthermore, AtFAH1 interacted with AtBI-1 via cytochrome b₅ more preferentially than AtFAH2. Our results suggest that AtFAH1 and AtFAH2 are functionally different FAHs, and that AtFAH1 or 2-hydroxy VLCFA is a key factor in AtBI-1-mediated cell death suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FA 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme that initiates FA α oxidation and is also responsible for the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxy FA (2-OH FA)-containing sphingolipids in mammalian cells. The 2-OH FA is chiral due to the asymmetric carbon bearing the hydroxyl group. Our current study performed stereochemistry investigation and showed that FA2H is stereospecific for the production of (R)-enantiomers. FA2H knockdown in adipocytes increases diffusional mobility of raft-associated lipids, leading to reduced GLUT4 protein level, glucose uptake, and lipogenesis. The effects caused by FA2H knockdown were reversed by treatment with exogenous (R)-2-hydroxy palmitic acid, but not with the (S)-enantiomer. Further analysis of sphingolipids demonstrated that the (R)-enantiomer is enriched in hexosylceramide whereas the (S)-enantiomer is preferentially incorporated into ceramide, suggesting that the observed differential effects are in part due to synthesis of sphingolipids containing different 2-OH FA enantiomers. These results may help clarify the mechanisms underlying the recently identified diseases associated with FA2H mutations in humans and may lead to potential pharmaceutical and dietary treatments. This study also provides critical information to help study functions of 2-OH FA enantiomers in FA α oxidation and possibly other sphingolipid-independent pathways.
The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2012; 53(7):1327-35. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M025742 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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