Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) of the head and neck: report of three cases and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT PEComas are a family of neoplastic lesions that share overlapping morphology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructure that include angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung as well as similar tumors occurring in a variety of visceral, cutaneous and soft tissue sites throughout the body. The defining histopathological features are epithelioid cells with a perivascular distribution containing clear to pale eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and a round-to-oval centrally located nucleus with an inconspicuous nucleolus. Immunohistochemically, coexpression of melanocytic (HMB-45 and/or Melan-A) and myoid markers are characteristic. In the present study, we describe three PEComas occurring in the head and neck (nasal cavity and larynx) and discuss the behavior of these distinctive tumors and review the literature of head and neck PEComas. The importance of recognizing this entity will ensure its consideration in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the head and neck with a similar morphology. The histogenesis of PEComas still remains elusive and additional cases with a prolonged follow up remain important to accurately determine the behavior of these distinctive tumors. Complete surgical excision still remains the treatment of choice for histologically benign PEComas.
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Article: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) of the head and neck: report of three cases and review of the literature.
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ABSTRACT: PEComas are a family of mesenchymal neoplasms that have in common the presence of a unique cell type, the perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC). PECs uniquely exhibit a distinct immunophenotype with expression of both melanocytic, particularly HMB-45, and myogenic markers. Nasal PEComas are exceedingly rare. To date, 14 cases have been described in the literature and with the exception of 6 cases, the rest consistently lack epithelioid cells and HMB-45 expression and are best classified as nasal hamartomas or angioleiomyomas with an adipocytic component. Nasal PEComas may closely resemble malignant melanomas since both entities share many morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and clinical features. The distinction is of paramount importance as melanomas tend to display an aggressive behaviour with associated poor outcome. Herein, we report a case of nasal PEComa in a 19 year girl, focusing on the importance of light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features in accurately establishing the diagnosis.Head and Neck Pathology 07/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12105-013-0470-z
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ABSTRACT: Recent developments in molecular genetics have expanded the spectrum of disorders associated with pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs) and have increased the roles of pathologists in helping to guide patient care. At least 30% of these tumors are now known to be hereditary, and germline mutations of at least 10 genes are known to cause the tumors to develop. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified, including differences in tumor distribution, catecholamine production, and risk of metastasis, and types of tumors not previously associated with PCC/PGL are now considered in the spectrum of hereditary disease. Important new findings are that mutations of succinate dehydrogenase genes SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 (collectively "SDHx") are responsible for a large percentage of hereditary PCC/PGL and that SDHB mutations are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal tumor location, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Further, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal tumors are now associated with SDHx mutations. A PCC or PGL caused by any of the hereditary susceptibility genes can present as a solitary, apparently sporadic, tumor, and substantial numbers of patients presenting with apparently sporadic tumors harbor occult germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Current roles of pathologists are differential diagnosis of primary tumors and metastases, identification of clues to occult hereditary disease, and triaging of patients for optimal genetic testing by immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue for the loss of SDHB and SDHA protein. Diagnostic pitfalls are posed by morphological variants of PCC/PGL, unusual anatomic sites of occurrence, and coexisting neuroendocrine tumors of other types in some hereditary syndromes. These pitfalls can be avoided by judicious use of appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Aside from loss of staining for SDHB, criteria for predicting risk of metastasis are still controversial, and "malignancy" is diagnosed only after metastases have occurred. All PCCs/PGLs are considered to pose some risk of metastasis, and long-term follow-up is advised.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 08/2013; 30(3):207-23. DOI:10.1053/j.semdp.2013.06.006 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although angiomyolipoma (AML) is a relatively rare entity, it is the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the kidney. To highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of AML and to assess the role of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), Melan-A, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and cytokeratin in its diagnosis. The study included 15 cases of AML. Clinical and radiological data were retrieved from the archival files and all cases were subjected to a histopathological evaluation as well as immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, Melan-A, SMA, S-100, and cytokeratin. AML was more common in females (female:male=4:1), the mean age was 53.9±6.45years. 60% of patients were symptomatic while the remaining 40% were asymptomatic. A statistically significant relationship was found between size of the tumor and the presence of the symptoms (P=0.02). Patients with tumor size less than 4cm were asymptomatic, while those with tumor size larger than 4cm had different symptoms. Thirteen cases were classic AML, while 2 cases were epithelioid AML. Classic AML demonstrated admixture of fatty tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscle, while epithelioid AML was composed mainly of epithelioid cells and contained no fat. HMB-45 was positive in all cases of AML (100%), Melan-A was positive in 13/15 (87%) while SMA was positive in 11/15 (73%) of AML with variable staining intensity. All cases of AML were negative for S-100 and cytokeratin. AMLs have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute 09/2013; 25(3):125-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jnci.2013.05.002