Advance in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst of the sacrum.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was the review of 11 patients with two different treatment methods used historically for aneurysmal bone cyst in the sacrum. The outcome of both procedures is reported. In addition, the treatment technique of CT-guided percutaneous injections of demineralized bone matrix mixed with bone marrow concentrate is described.
From 1997 to 2008, 11 patients with sacral aneurysmal bone cyst were treated at the Rizzoli Institute, Bologna, Italy. The first seven patients had surgical curettage without bone grafting, chemical adjuvants, or arterial embolization. The last four patients had arterial embolization. The last patient did not respond to arterial embolization and was treated by CT-guided injection of demineralized bone matrix mixed with bone marrow concentrate.
Curettage was successful in five out of seven patients. Two patients suffered complications, and two cases had recurrence. Arterial embolization was successful in three of four patients. The patient treated with injection had a good clinical and radiographic result.
Both surgical and arterial embolization are effective for aneurysmal bone cyst in the sacrum. However, these treatments may lead to complications and recurrence. The use of CT-guided injections of demineralized bone matrix mixed with bone marrow concentrate may be a safe and effective alternative for treatment of these destructive and problematic lesions.
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ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign tumor of bone presenting as a cystic, expansile lesion in both the axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial lesions demand special consideration, because treatment-related morbidity can be devastating. In similar lesions, such as giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), the receptor-activator nuclear kappa beta ligand (RANKL)-receptor-activator nuclear kappa beta (RANK) signaling axis is essential to tumor progression. Although ABC and GCTB are distinct entities, they both contain abundant multinucleated giant cells and are osteolytic characteristically. We hypothesize that ABCs express both RANKL and RANK similarly in a cell-type specific manner, and that targeted RANKL therapy will mitigate ABC tumor progression. Cellular expression of RANKL and RANK was determined in freshly harvested ABC samples using laser confocal microscopy. A consistent cell-type-specific pattern was observed: fibroblastlike stromal cells expressed RANKL strongly whereas monocyte/macrophage precursor and multinucleated giant cells expressed RANK. Relative RANKL expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ABC and GCTB tissue samples; no difference in relative expression was observed (P > 0.05). In addition, we review the case of a 5-year-old boy with a large, aggressive sacral ABC. After 3 months of targeted RANKL inhibition with denosumab, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated tumor shrinkage, bone reconstitution, and healing of a pathologic fracture. Ambulation, and bowel and bladder function were restored at 6 months. Denosumab treatment was well tolerated. Post hoc analysis demonstrated strong RANKL expression in the pretreatment tumor sample. These findings demonstrate that RANKL-RANK signal activation is essential to ABC tumor progression. RANKL-targeted therapy may be an effective alternative to surgery in select ABC presentations.Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 03/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Sacral tumor often involves en bloc surgical resection with tumor-free margins and functional reconstruction challenges. Such a management is challenging because of difficulties in accessing the lesion, risks for damages of neighboring organs, and risks for massive blood loss. In posterior approach, because first elevation of the sacrum allows dissection of presacral structures, such risks for damages intrapelvic structures and hemorrhage are especially high. Presentation of case We report here about a laparoscopic assisted posterior resection of a ilio-sacral chondrosarcoma in a women, 6 weeks after vaginal delivery. Primary laparoscopic approach consisted in dissection of the ureter and of the colon with control to the pelvic vessels and nerves and determination of limits of the resection. The iliac osteotomy was performed from posterior approach with saw and osteotomes at the predetermined extralesional level. The defect was replaced with a structural fresh frozen femoral allograft and stabilization performed by lumbo-ischial screw/rod fixation. Discussion Surgical time was about 360 minutes. No intra-postoperative complications occurred. Blood loss was estimated to about 1000cc. Histologic examination of the specimen showed tumor-free margins. At 8 months follow-up, the patient appears to be without recurrence. Because of the denervation of the nerve root L5 and below, she mostly uses two canes, but she has a functioning Quadriceps. Continence and voiding functions for urine and stool has fully recovered. Conclusions Primary laparoscopic approach appeared to be a good way for preparation orthopedics sacroiliac resection to reduce postoperative morbidity, intraoperative blood loss and better assure macroscopic tumor-free margins.International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 01/2014;