Article

Probiotic (symbiotic) bacterial languages

Research Group Probiotic & Functional Foods, Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology after G.N. Gabrichevsky, Admiral Makarov Street 10, 125212 Moscow, Russia.
Anaerobe (Impact Factor: 2.36). 05/2011; 17(6):490-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.05.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Symbiotic gut microorganisms release of various soluble low molecular weight (LMW)molecules of different chemical nature (surface and exogenous proteins, nucleases, serpins, sirtuines, other enzymes, lectins, peptides, amines, bacteriocines, fatty and amino acids, lactones, furanons, miRNA, NO, etc). These LMW molecules are able to sense environment, interact with corresponding cell surface, membrane, cytoplasm and nucleic acid receptors, to reply quickly and coordinately by induction of special sets of genes, to support stability of host genome and microbiome, to modulate epigenomic regulation of gene phenotypic expression, to ensure the information exchange in numerous bacterial and bacteria-host systems playing an important role in the control for many genetic and physiological functions, biochemical and behaviour reactions, in supporting host health in general. Various symbiotic (probiotic) strains produce different spectrum of such LMW molecules. There is chemical and functional similarity between LMW molecules synthesized by host eukaryotic cells, indigenous and probiotic microorganisms and some micronutrients. It means many LMW compounds of different origin may be the universal regulators contributing to the transmission of information, quorum sensing effects, metagenome stability and epigenomic control for cell growth and development as well as phenotypic expression of different genes. Knowledge accumulated concerning molecular languages of symbiotic microorganisms allows us to better understand the mode of action of known probiotics and to design in principle novel probiotics (metabiotics) with increased health effectiveness. Now we are only at the beginning of a new era of molecular personal biotherapy and nutrition. Soon we can successfully manipulate both the host and its microbiota through interfering in their cross talk, stability and epigenomic regulation of expression of genes using various types of eukaryotic, prokaryotic and nutrition origin LMW molecules are capable to modulate genetic, metabolic and physiological activities.

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