Simple cystatin C formula compared to sophisticated CKD-EPI formulas for estimation of glomerular filtration rate in the elderly.
ABSTRACT Despite the fact that the serum creatinine level is notoriously unreliable for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the elderly, the serum creatinine concentration and serum creatinine-based formulas, such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation (MDRD) are the most commonly used markers to estimate GFR. Recently, serum cystatin C-based formulas, the newer creatinine formula (the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (CKD-EPI creatinine formula), and an equation that uses both serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula) were proposed as new GFR markers. The aim of our study was to compare the MDRD formula, CKD-EPI creatinine formula, CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula, and simple cystatin C formula (100/serum cystatin C) against (51) Cr-EDTA clearance in the elderly. A total of 317 adult Caucasian patients aged >65 years were enrolled. In each patient, (51) Cr-EDTA clearance, serum creatinine, and serum cystatin C were determined, and the GFR was calculated using the MDRD formula, CKD-EPI formulas, and simple cystatin C formula. Statistically significant correlations between (51) Cr-EDTA clearance and all formulas were found. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with a cut-off of GFR 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), a higher diagnostic accuracy was achieved with the equation that uses both serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula) than the MDRD formula (P < 0.013) or CKD-EPI creatinine formula (P < 0.01), but it was not higher than that achieved for the simple cystatin C formula (P = 0.335). Bland and Altman analysis for the same cut-off value showed that the creatinine formulas underestimated and the simple cystatin C formula overestimated measured GFR. All equations lacked precision. The accuracy within 30% of estimated (51) Cr-EDTA clearance values differ according to the stage of CKD. Analysis of the ability to correctly predict GFR below and above 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) showed a high prediction for all formulas. Our results indicate that the simple cystatin C formula, which requires just one variable (serum cystatin C concentration), is a reliable marker of GFR in the elderly and comparable to the creatinine formulas, including the CKD-EPI formulas.
- SourceAvailable from: Henrik S Thomsen[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The need for simple and accurate methods to measure renal function is self-evident. This need increases as techniques for intervention become available. The demand for evaluation of individual kidney function has increased with its role in the diagnosis and follow-up of unilateral renal disease and in decision making for conservative or surgical treatment based on residual renal function. The role of nuclear medicine in this area has been inhibited by confusion about conflicting methodologies. This report is meant to provide guidance to those centers that would like to initiate clearance procedures but have difficulty in choosing appropriate methodology.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/1996; 37(11):1883-90. · 5.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since 1985, cystatin C has been suggested to be a marker of the renal function. Cystatin C is a proteinase inhibitor with a low molecular weight (M(r) = 13359). It is produced at a constant rate in all nucleated cells investigated to date, freely filtered in the renal glomeruli and reabsorbed and catabolised in the proximal tubules. The concentration of serum cystatin C is mainly determined by glomerular filtration, which makes cystatin C an endogenous marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There are few data describing the influence of various factors on the production and elimination of cystatin C. Fully automated assays using particle-enhanced turbidimetry or particle-enhanced nephelometry are available and the assays are precise, rapid and usable in clinical routine practice. Reference intervals have been determined for cystatin C in adults and in children older than one year. It has been suggested that the same reference interval can be used in children older than one year and in adults without gender differences, on the assumption that the same method with the same standardisation is used. Several studies including adults and children with different renal diseases with various kidney function have suggested serum cystatin C to be a better marker of GFR than serum creatinine.Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 05/1999; 37(4):389-95. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- Clinical laboratory 02/2000; 46(1-2):53-5. · 0.92 Impact Factor