Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells respond to interaction with Entamoeba histolytica by changes in morphology, integrin signalling and cell death.

Unité Biologie Cellulaire du Parasitisme, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
Cellular Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.82). 07/2011; 13(7):1091-106. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01604.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Invasive infection with Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis. In liver, parasites cross the endothelial barrier before abscess formation in the parenchyma. We focussed on amoebae interactions with human hepatic endothelial cells, the latter potentially playing a dual role in the infection process: as a barrier and as modulators of host defence responses. We characterized early responses of a human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line to virulent and virulence-attenuated E. histolytica. Within the first minutes human cells start to retract, enter into apoptosis and die. In the presence of virulent amoebae, expression of genes related to cell cycle, cell death and integrin-mediated adhesion signalling was modulated, and actin fibre, focal adhesion kinase and paxillin localizations changed. Effects of inhibitors and amoeba strains not expressing pathogenic factors amoebapore A and cysteine protease A5 indicated that cell death and cytoskeleton disorganization depend upon parasite adhesion and amoebic cysteine proteinase activities. The data establish a relation between cytotoxic effects of E. histolytica and altered human target cell adhesion and suggest that interference with adhesion signalling triggers endothelial cell retraction and death. Understanding the roles of integrin signalling in endothelial cells will provide clues to unravel host-pathogen interactions during amoebic liver infection.

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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of human parasitic diseases depend on the availability of appropriate in vivo animal models and ex vivo experimental systems, and are particularly difficult for pathogens whose exclusive natural hosts are humans, such as Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis. This common infectious human disease affects the intestine and liver. In the liver sinusoids E. histolytica crosses the endothelium and penetrates into the parenchyma, with the concomitant initiation of inflammatory foci and subsequent abscess formation. Studying factors responsible for human liver infection is hampered by the complexity of the hepatic environment and by the restrictions inherent to the use of human samples. Therefore, we built a human 3D-liver in vitro model composed of cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes in a 3D collagen-I matrix sandwich. We determined the presence of important hepatic markers and demonstrated that the cell layers function as a biological barrier. E. histolytica invasion was assessed using wild-type strains and amoebae with altered virulence or different adhesive properties. We showed for the first time the dependence of endothelium crossing upon amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. The 3D-liver model enabled the molecular analysis of human cell responses, suggesting for the first time a crucial role of human galectins in parasite adhesion to the endothelial cells, which was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of galectin-1. Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-1 and -3, were highly increased upon contact of E. histolytica with the 3D-liver model. The presence of galectin-1 and -3 in the extracellular medium stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release, suggesting a further role for human galectins in the onset of the hepatic inflammatory response. These new findings are relevant for a better understanding of human liver infection by E. histolytica.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2014; 10(9):e1004381. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004381 · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amoebiasis is the third worldwide disease due to a parasite. The causative agent of this disease, the unicellular eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, causes dysentery and liver abscesses associated with inflammation and human cell death. During liver invasion, before entering the parenchyma, E. histolytica trophozoites are in contact with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). We present data characterizing human LSEC responses to interaction with E. histolytica and identifying amoebic factors involved in the process of cell death in this cell culture model potentially relevant for early steps of hepatic amoebiasis. E. histolytica interferes with host cell adhesion signalling and leads to diminished adhesion and target cell death. Contact with parasites induces disruption of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes. We conclude that interference with LSEC signalling may result from amoeba-triggered changes in the mechanical forces in the vicinity of cells in contact with parasites, sensed and transmitted by focal adhesion complexes. The study highlights for the first time the potential role in the onset of hepatic amoebiasis of the loss of liver endothelium integrity by disturbance of focal adhesion function and adhesion signalling. Among the amoebic factors required for changed LSEC adherence properties we identified the Gal/GalNAC lectin, cysteine proteases and KERP1.
    European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 03/2011; 1(1):10-18. DOI:10.1556/EuJMI.1.2011.1.4
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is an extracellular protozoan parasite of the human colon, which occasionally breaches the intestinal barrier. Eradicating ameba that invades is essential for host survival. A defining but uncharacterized feature of amebic invasion is direct contact between ameba and host cells. This event corresponds with a massive pro-inflammatory response. To date, pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that are activated by contact with viable Eh are unknown. Here we show that the innate immune system responds in a qualitatively different way to contact with viable Eh vs. soluble ligands produced by viable or dead ameba. This unique Eh Gal-lectin contact-dependent response in macrophages was mediated by activation of the inflammasome. Soluble native Gal-lectin did not induce inflammasome activation, but was sufficient for transcriptional priming of the inflammasome and non-inflammasome-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine release. We conclude the inflammasome is a pathogenicity sensor for invasive Eh and identify for the first time a PRR that specifically responds to contact with intact parasites in a manner that accords with scale immune response to parasite invasion.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 20 November 2013; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.100.
    Mucosal Immunology 11/2013; 7(4). DOI:10.1038/mi.2013.100 · 7.54 Impact Factor

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